Errata & Enhancements to PrMet-versions 1.00 & 1.01

Stull: "Practical Meteorology: An Algebra-based Survey of Atmospheric Science",
version 1.00 published 10 Nov 2015.
version 1.00b and 1.01 published 2016.
As you discover errors or have suggestions for improvement to the book version listed above, please email the details to me:  rstull [at} eoas (Dot] ubc {doT) ca .  Be sure to locate them with chapter, page, column (right or left), paragraph, and line number, so that other readers and I can find it.  Thanks. 
Note: I have not checked these suggestions/corrections yet to see if they are correct or relevant - - some might not be incorporated into the next version of the book.

Items below in black color are corrections still needed for all versions of the book. 

Items with green colored font are corrections for versions 1.00 (2015) and 1.01 (2016) that have already been incorporated into version 1.02 of Practical Meteorology (PrMet, 2017), and are available from the home page for PrMet.

(captured through 7 Aug 2017)

Chapter Titles

1. Atmospheric Basics


Corrections to version 1.00 that have already been incorporated into version 1.01 and after:

p2, left column, Fig. 1.2.   Add an additional figure for meteorological azimuth, as opposed to the existing figure for wind direction.

p. 10, just before equation 1.10, “Knowing that P = F/A, (the) previous two expressions are combined…” (the word “the” is missing from the text).

p20, left column, Scientific Perspective box, about 2/3 down the page, under Find the Answer, for the density rho_o.   Units should be kg m^-3 . 

p20, in both left and right columns.  Search and change all "Solved Examples" to "Sample Applications".


Corrections to version 1.01 that have already been incorporated into version 1.02 and after:

p7, right column, Table 1-3.  After "hectopascals" add "(allowed)"

p9, right column, INFO box, 2nd to last line, make "A" be in italics.

p11, add info and citations about various standard atmospheres:  ISA (1975), US (1976), ICAO (1993), and Navy NRLMSISE-00 (2003).

p19, right column, in the white space after the review, add a "Tips" section:  1) Take advantage of the extensive index.  2) Check online for errata (corrections) to the current edition.   3) Use split screens or multiple windows to view different but related items (e.g., homework exercises and relevant material).

p20, left column, last sentence.  Change "Find the Answer" to "solution".

p22, left column, Apply section, 3rd paragraph, add "R" to the list of useful programming languages.

p25, left column, bottom.  Add a new exercise.  E16.  Plot graphs temperature vs. height to compare the ISO Standard Atmosphere (ISA), the US Standard Atmosphere, and the newer NavyNRLMSISE-00.  Where are any significant differences?

p26.  right column, exercise S7.  Equation is wrong, and thus the question should be re-written as follows:  "When you use a hand pump to inflate a bicycle or car tire, the pump usually gets hot near the outflow hose.  Why?  Since pressure in the ideal gas law is proportional to the absolute virtual temperature (P = rho * Rd * Tv), why should the tire pump temperature be warmer than ambient?"


2. Solar & Infrared Radiation


Corrections to version 1.00 that have already been incorporated into version 1.01 and after:

p32, right column, eq (2.6), change the sign for longitude (lambda) from + to - .  Also, in the paragraph under this eq, state that longitudes are defined as positive toward the East (to be consistent with most other geographic systems). 

p32, left column, top solved example, change the sign for the longitude of Vancouver.   Namely, it should have a negative sign, to work with the revised eq. (2.6). 

p34, right column, eq. (2.8a), insert a negative sign in front of the lambda (longitude) term.

pg 36, right column, middle of the page, topic of Wavenumber.   Also describe the other way to define wavenumber as 2pi/lambda instead of 1/lambda.

p45, right column, bottom figure.  Change figure number to 2.15  (not 4.15).  Also, in the left column in the pyranometer section, refer to fig 2.15.  Also on p46, right column, in the pyrgeometer section, change to fig 2.15.


Corrections to version 1.01 that have already been incorporated into version 1.02 and after:

p38, left column, HIGHER MATH box, first 2 equations.  It would be better, theoretically, to start with E = sigma * T^4, then expand it in a Taylor's series to get the second equation, and then take the limit of small delta_T to get the first eq.

p39, Eq. 2.16 -- E_2^* shouldn't have an asterisk, since it's the flux from sphere 1 flowing through vacuum, not the thermal exitence from
surface of radius R_2

p39, left column, eq. 2.17.  Another estimate of the solar irradiance is roughly 1361 (+- 0.5) W/m2, averaged since year 1750, from IPCC (2013) AR5 Chapter 8, p 689, Fig. 8.11 . 

p43, left column, Eq. 2.30.  Beers law only works for photons traveling the same direction, either because you're considering an infinitesimal solid angle (radiance L) or because you are working with a direct beam (solar flux S0).

p43, left column, eq. 2.31c and the sentence preceding it.  Note that tau, which is for the whole path, represents the integral of the extinctions over each portion of the path.


3. Thermodynamics


Corrections to version 1.00 that have already been incorporated into version 1.01 and after:

p. 54.  Top of page. Change all chapter headers on even page numbers to say "Thermodynamics". 

p. 56, right under Table 3-2 there seems to be a referencing problem. It says “First Law of Thermo” where it should probably say “heat transferred”.

p68, left column, Fig. 3.7.  Change the heat flux curves to be appropriate for the log scale of the vertical axis. 

p69. very bottom of p. 69: I think the last sentence should say “The resulting turbulent heat fluxes decrease linearly with height AS shown” (currently says “was shown”).

p. 70: not enough whitespace above equation 3.40.

 p. 71 of this chapter, the first sentence in the ‘Solar and IR Radiation’ section reads like it was a note that you wrote to remind yourself to divide the topic. Maybe that’s the case - otherwise I think it warrants re-wording.

p. 76: at the end of the first sentence, “breath” should be changed to “breathe”

p. 78: in first sentence of second paragraph under ‘Temperature Sensors’, I think you have misspelled “bimetallic” (you only have one ‘l’)


Corrections to version 1.01 that have already been incorporated into version 1.02 and after:

p75, left column, 4th line.  The equation in that line should be Fwater = - KE*(delta r / delta z). 


4. Water Vapor


Corrections to version 1.00 that have already been incorporated into version 1.02 and after:

p. 98 - second sentence after equation (4.32c) - get rid of “either or both” and keep “and/or”, or vice-versa

p. 102 - first sentence in section on ‘Moist Adiabats on a Thermo Diagram’ - replace “mean” with “means”

p. 105 - paragraph 4, sentence 2 -  remove “and” before “plot these points on a thermo diagram”, or otherwise re-word

p. 108 - last sentence before section on ‘Moisture Flux at the Earth’s Surface' - may want to specify that the liquid precipitation rate at the ground is the rainfall rate

p 109, left column, first paragraph, last line.  Change "and" to "or".   Namely, the two values for "a" are equivalent, but in different units.

p. 111 - column 2, about half-way down page right after bolded text “krypton hygrometer” - change “generated by glow tube” to generated by a glow tube"

p92, RH column, Notes row, add "see Fig. 4.3 for RH% vs. r" .

p94, right column, 2nd paragraph, line 3, change the programs to use in the spreadsheet to be eqs. (4.18a & b).   (not eqs. 4.18 & 4.19).

p94, right column, 2nd paragraph, line 7, change from eq. (4.14) to be (4.14b or c). 

p95, right column, first sample application, line after "Find", add missing right parenthesis after eq. (4.19  .

p95, right column, bottom sample application.  Assumed P = 100 kPa, but incorrectly used P = 101.325 in the solution.  Fix:  use 100 kPa in the 2nd-to-last equation in the sample application, which gives rs = 14.9 g/kg.   Then, using that in the last eq. gives RH = 52.5%.

p101, right column, 6th line before eq. 4.37a: move the ")" to be on the previous line (the same line that had the open parenthesis).


5. Atmospheric Stability


Corrections to version 1.00 that have already been incorporated into version 1.02 and after:

p. 121 - in ‘Info’ box, need comma after Skew-T Log P bullet point

p. 130 - last paragraph before ‘Precipitation’ section, sentence 2 - “Knowing …, then follow” - either remove “then”, or replace with “you can then”

p130, right column, 3rd to last line: "subsequent ascent or descent, the you must follow".  Typo.  Change "the" to "then."

p136, right column, 2nd line below eq.(5.3d), "then" should be "than".

p. 136 - 1st sentence in section on ‘Brunt Vaisala Frequency” - “…lapse rate (lambda) is less than” - the word “than” is missing from this sentence

p. 143 - 1st sentence of paragraph 3 - “Strong static stability can be found by locating/identifying regions…” - suggest adding “locating" or “identifying” here


6. Clouds


Corrections to version 1.00 that have already been incorporated into version 1.02 and after:

p. 161 - in the ‘Cumuliform’ section, last sentence of 1st paragraph - you say these clouds have an aspect ratio of approximately 1, and that cloud diameter is approximately equal to distance of cloud top above ground - is this correct?    No.  Instead, better to talk about how the aspect ratio is about 1 for the whole thermal circulation between the ground and cloud top, where the Cu itself is just a small visible top part of the whole circulation.   Like the tip of an iceberg. 

p164, right column (top), 4th line: "don't let the suffix 'cumulus' in fool you."  Typo:  omit the word "in" . 

p. 177 - end of 3rd paragraph - you say that when Qak > 0, fog dissipates, assuming no fog initially. When I first read through the discussion of equation (6.12), I thought we were only talking about the dissipation of fog, but if we assume no fog initially, then this equation must describe both fog development and dissipation. This may warrant some clarification. For example, what happens when Qak < 0? Is fog increasing?

p171 - 172.  The section on fractals and fractal dimension is interesting, but it’s not obvious why the reader should care about it. For example, (and I might be wrong here), you might want to say something about the predictability of meteorological phenomena with fractal geometry, such as turbulence, and how these can’t be modelled explicitly but are instead parameterized. Fractals are related to chaos, right?


7. Precipitation Processes


Corrections to version 1.00 that have already been incorporated into version 1.02 and after:

p. 185 - first and last sentences of paragraph 1 - typo “hydrometer” should be “hydrometeor” (maybe do a search in this chapter to see if there are any other instances of this error

p. 191 - last sentence of first full paragraph - replace “explodes” with “evaporates”   (note from Stull:  "explosively evaporates" might describe it better)

p. 195 - in last sentence of first paragraph - replaces “increases” with “increase”, i.e., “Colder temperatures and greater supersaturation increase deposition…”

p. 197 - below equation (7.25) you say that small droplets grow by diffusion faster than large droplets, but on p. 189 the curvature effect means that large particles grow faster than small ones - what is the net effect?  Perhaps a few words of clarification would help to reconcile these seemingly opposing ideas.

p. 199 - Table 7A item 1d - replace “start-like” with “star-like”

p. 200 - paragraph 2, sentence 1 - “…thick plates have an aspect ratio of…” (word “an” is missing)

p. 202 - first sentence of section on ‘Terminal Velocity of Hydrometeors’ - replace “are” with “is”, i.e., "Everything including cloud and rain drops is pulled by gravity”

p. 207 - last sentence - “You have probably also experienced…” (add “have”)

p. 208 - in the list of world-record rainfall amounts, La Re Union should be La Réunion or just Réunion

p. 208 - right column.  Add new info about intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves.

p. 209 - Table 7-6, 4th entry - swap the first two words, i.e., replace “Compacted snow by…” with “Snow compacted by…”


8. Satellites & Radar


p224, right column, eq 8.2.   Replace Blambda with Llambda .

p 224 - right column, eq. (8.3), change all tau-hat to t-hat.  Also, in 2nd to last line on that page, replace "tau-hat is transmittance" with "t-hat is transmissivity".  (This is to be consistent with terminology in Chapter 2.)

p. 227 - last sentence - “Satellites are also hurt…” - replace “hurt” with “damaged” (satellites don’t have feelings)

p. 238 - sentence 2 - replace “to retrieve” with “in retrieving”, i.e., “From Retrieval Corollary 1 there is little value in retrieving more altitudes…”

p. 239 - in ‘Higher Math’ box, there is inconsistency in the abbreviation of “Figure” - sometimes it reads “Fig.” and sometimes “Fig” without the period

p. 242 - the AVCS bulletpoint is missing a comma before the word “which”

p. 245 - first line of page - “clutter return at large range” - is this correct? Wouldn’t superrefraction cause a return at short range?

p246, left column, bottom Sample Application, last 2 lines before "Check".  Error in the equation and the resulting answer.  In the 2nd line before "Check", the factor 0.93 should be outside the square brackets [ ]2.   The final answer in the last line before "Check" should be changed to be:  PR = 1.17x10-8 W.

p. 248 - two lines below bolded “identify storms” text near bottom of page - concept of “echo-top height” is not defined - what is it?

p. 249 - second sentence of ‘Radial velocities’ section - beginning of sentence is a bit awkward - try “But after being scattered…” OR “But once scattered…” OR “But after scattering…”

p. 256 - under Co-polar Correlation Coefficient bulletpoint - remove period after “mix”?

p. 259 - paragraph above equation (8.42) is worded awkwardly - maybe the second sentence could begin “With this setup, the two radial…”, or rework the two sentences into one like “If we assume the same average U and W…, then the two radial…”


9. Weather Reports & Map Analysis


p. 268 - in the last sentence of the second paragraph from the top of the page, "observations" is spelled incorrectly, and there is no period at the end of the sentence.

p. 270 - 2nd sentence - remove “a” - i.e., “It contains a routine (hourly observations of…”

p. 271 - top left of page under ‘Supplementary’ - for NSW description, replace “nil” with “no” - i.e., “NSW = no significant weather”

p. 273 - paragraph 2 - remove “a” - i.e., “…on a polar -orbiting satellites…”

p. 274 - first sentence of paragraph 3 - remove second instance of “weather” - i.e., …”Scales of weather…that are called synoptic-scale weather”

p. 277 - Table 9-5 - in Altocumulus Castellanus entry, replace “tuffs” with “tufts”

p. 278 - for RR bulletpoint - is this always reported in mm in Canada? (it’s pretty obvious, but may be worth clarifying)

p. 281 - add Trowal to Fig 9.18?

p284, left column, caption of Fig. 9.21-i.   Change "show" to "shown".  


10. Atmospheric Forces & Winds


p. 291 - info box, #5 - Why do some weather forecast models use pressure coordinate systems, and why do some modern models not?

p. 292 - very last sentence - inside the parentheses, maybe say “not necessarily that V=0”, since it is theoretically possible to have no wind

p. 294 - in ‘Advection of Horizontal Momentum’ section, last sentence of paragraph 2 - remove second instance of “is larger”, i.e., “The rate of increase of U at “O” is larger for faster advection (V), and when deltaU/deltaY is more negative”.

p. 303 - paragraph 1, last sentence - suggest changing to “In the N. (S.) hemisphere…low pressure is to the wind’s left (right)”.

p 306, left column.  The info box on pg 313 should be moved to pg 306.

p. 309 - paragraph 1, last sentence - change “point” to “pointing”, i.e., “…such that it has a component pointing to low pressure.”

p. 315 - Fig 10.24 - define acronym MCS in caption

p. 318 - 2nd sentence below eq (10.65b) - change to “This forcing of a broad updraft region…” (remove ’s’ from region)

p320.  An info box on the Rossby radius of deformation could be added on pg 320.

p320.  You reuse eq 10.70 at eq 11.12 but also doesn’t explain it was derived from 10.67 and 10.70. The explanation on the Sample Application on pg 344 right next to eq 11.12 is very good. A similar discussion should be added to the Sample Application on pg 320. 

p. 321,322 - change all instances of “axel” to “axle” - apparently an axel is a figure skating jump

p. 322 - Sonic anemometer description - in order to measure both T and wind speed, does the anemometer require two sets of transmitters and receivers? That is, don’t you need to know T to compute wind speed, and vice-versa?


11. General Circulation


p. 329 - first sentence of paragraph 3 - it is actually true that warm air rises and cold air sinks, it’s just that it doesn’t happen as a single cell. This should be clarified.
p330, left column, in Figure 11.2, along the equator: change "equitorial" to  "equatorial".

p. 330 - last paragraph of Key terms feels out of place. I suggest moving this to p. 333 where the acronyms JJA and DJF are used (not used elsewhere)

p. 331-333 - in the description of the general circulation components, I found myself asking why the features exist and why they behave the way that they do. At the beginning of this section on p.330 you may want to mention that this is an overview and that the processes driving the described features are described in detail later in the chapter.

p. 331 - it may be worth noting that the surface low and upper high at ITCZ is caused by rising warm air, rather than the pressure gradient driving downward air movement. In the previous chapter we learned about how pressure gradients drive winds, so this may be confusing to readers.

p333, changes to the ITCZ description, based on the paper by Waliser & Gautier, 1993: J. Clim., 6, 2162-2174.
  -  left column, second paragraph, last sentence:  change "10°N" to "9°N, but varies with longitude".
  -  left column, third paragraph, 3rd to last line:  change "10°S" to "6°S, but varies with longitude". 

p. 334 - caption of Figure 11.16 - “Annual average incoming solar radiation…and of outgoing infrared…” (remove “of”)

p. 335 - under equations (11.1) and (11.2) - rewrite “40C = 40K” as “40C or 40K” or “40C (or K - units do not matter)” - but in equation 11.1, wouldn’t b have to be in degrees C to be able to add the two terms of the equation? And then T would also be in degrees C.

p. 336 - Fig 11.9a (note this figure also appears on p. 41 Fig 2.11) - why isn’t the plot symmetric about the equator (i.e., why is it different in each hemisphere?) For example, in the southern hemisphere, the 500 W/m2 contour extends to -30deg, but in the northern hemisphere it only extends to 75deg.

337 - below equation (11.6) - add note that absorption of solar radiation causes heating

p. 338 - beginning of last paragraph - “By definition, the meridional transport at the poles is zero.” What “definition” is this?

p. 339 - FIgure 11.14 - why isn’t ocean transport symmetric in the two hemispheres?

p. 340 - first bullet under ‘Pressure Profiles’ - replace “due to” with “caused by” or “generated by”

p. 344 - explanation of Figure 11.19b in text - wouldn’t the acceleration be accompanied by an immediate increase in the coriolis force such that there was actually no turning and no movement of air molecules weakening the pressure gradient? Wouldn’t the increased pressure gradient then just result in faster geostrophic winds?

p. 344 - paragraph above equation (11.12), first sentence - replace “Defined” with “define”, i.e., “Define a disturbance as…”

p. 344 - last paragraph - combine sentences 1+2 to something like “For a given size of wavelength of initial disturbance lambda, eq (11.12) can be used as follows: for large lambda, the wind field experiences the greatest adjustment.”

p344, right column, line 2, typo.   Change "much" to "must".

p. 349 - first sentence of ‘Thermal Wind…- Part 2’ - should this be “As geostrophic winds adjust to changes in pressure gradients…”?

p. 350 - paragraph 5 - remove “But” from start of first sentence

p. 353 - paragraph 4 - I can see how barotropic/baroclinic instabilities would cause meandering following a disturbance, but what triggers the disturbance?

p. 353 - paragraph 5 - why is the subtropical jet steady?

p. 353 - paragraph 6 - replace “killing” with “destroying” in first sentence

p. 354-355 - Change the maps to be 30-year averages, for January and July.

p. 354-355 - why do the patterns shift poleward over the continents? explanation might fit nicely in p. 346.

p357 - right column,  Fig. 11.35b.  Change to merge the polar and subtropical jets, and add the weak easterly jet in the tropics.

p. 357 - paragraph 2 - Why does jet stream speed vary? What happens when the fast air over the Pacific converges with the slower air toward the Atlantic?

p358 - change the maps to be 30-year averages, for January and July.

p. 359 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - not clear why isobars cross isotherms - if pressure gradient is driven by temperature gradient, then wouldn’t they be parallel?

p. 359 - paragraph 5 sentence 1 - replace “causes” with “cause”, i.e., “…thickness changes between isobaric surfaces cause the meridional pressure gradient…”

p. 360 - paragraph above equation (11.18), first sentence - move the air how? Related to question about disturbance trigger on p. 353 paragraph 4.

p. 361 - last sentence - can one occurrence of the word “circulation” be changed?

p. 362 - above equation (11.21) - define M, e.g., “But in a river (or atmosphere), currents can have additional radial shear of the tangential velocity (M).”

p. 367 - paragraph 4 - again, what causes the initial disturbance?

p. 368 - in “Location d” paragraph - remove “But” from the beginning of the first sentence

p. 368 - Higher Math box, first sentence - missing word - “…oscillates north of south some distance y relative to an arbitrary…”

p. 368 - Higher Math box, under equation (c) - missing “)” in reference to equation 11.20

p. 369 - paragraph 1, last sentence - missing “)” at end of last sentence. Also suggest replacing second “where” with “and”, i.e., “…(where the circumference of a latitude circle is…, and phi is latitude).”

p. 369 - under equation (11.37) - replace “crest” with “crests”

p. 369 - end of page - mention that the net effect is that short waves move through long waves (this is described in exposition of the third sample application on p. 370

p371. Caption of Fig. 11.52, line 2.  Typo.  Change "at" to "an".   Also, eliminate one of the two periods at the end of the caption.

p. 371 - at end of first paragraph of ‘Qualitative View’ section, mention why thickness was ignored for barotropic

p. 371 - second paragraph of ‘Qualitative View’, first sentence - wording is awkward, suggest “For baroclinic waves, follow the jet stream as was done before for barotropic waves…”

p. 371 - last sentence of Figure 11.52 has two periods

p. 373 - between equations (11.46) and (11.47) - replace “is indicated” with “as indicated” or just “indicated”

p. 375 - first sentence - suggest “This flux is positive (negative) in the N. (S.) Hemisphere.”

p. 376 - under equation (11.49) - similarly, suggest “…we infer that MG is negative (positive) in N. (S.) Hemisphere midlatitudes.”

p. 376 - Figure 11.58 caption “dot-circle” and “x-circle” inconsistent with Figure 11.53 caption which uses “Circle-dot” and “circle-X”

p. 379 - last paragraph above ‘Review’ - suggest “…transport by Ekman ocean processes is 90deg to the right (left) of the near-surface wind in the N. (S.) Hemisphere.

p332, left column. Figs. 11.4.  Make the equator a white line, so it shows up better.


12. Fronts & Airmasses


p. 389 - paragraph 3 - mention here that Lows are covered in the next chapter. They are discussed in the previous paragraph and then abandoned with no explanation.

p. 392 - Table 12-1 - for rows “k” and “w”, capitalize first word and add period for consistency with above descriptions. Row “r” missing period from description.

p. 393 - first sentence of last paragraph, change “at rate 2C/day” to “at a rate of 2C/day”.

p. 396 - 3rd full paragraph - sentence 2 has two instances of “also” - remove one of these.

p. 399 - Figure 12.10 - suggest adding Trowal (I also made this suggestion in the chapter from which this figure is copied.

p. 403 - somewhere in paragraphs 1-5, clarify that this discussion applies both to warm and cold fronts

p. 408 - first sentence of Frontogenesis section - replace long dash with “, which is”, i.e., “Fronts are recognized by the change in temperature across the frontal zone, which is greatest at the surface.”

p. 408 - last sentence before “Kinematics” heading - suggest rewording as “Such processes can be classified as kinematic, thermodynamic, and dynamic.

p. 409 - throughout Confluence, Shear, and Tilting sections, replace “= -“ with “< 0” and “= +” with “> 0”.

p. 410 - paragraph 1 - can you explain the difference between confluence and convergence and between diffluence and divergence? Perhaps add an INFO box.

p414, right column, before "Upper Tropospheric Fronts".   Add a new section on "Bent-Back Fronts & Sting Jets".  Also, discuss the Shapiro-Keyser cyclone model in that new section.  Also add a new figure, and update all the Chapter 12 figure numbers after it.

p. 416 - paragraph 2, sentence 2 - remove comma

p. 416 - paragraph 3 - why/how are convective clouds triggered along drylines?

p. 418 - last sentence - here you say that drylines form over sloping terrain - this is not clear from description on p. 416.


13. Extratropical Cyclones


p. 427 - paragraph 2 line 3 - line is very cramped, looks like one long word (i.e. spaces between words are not apparent). It should be "temperature change across a short horizontal distance."

p. 428 - Figs 13.3 b-e - is the far right side of the front still stationary?

p. 430 - line 7 - “… such as those associated with the El Nino/La nina cycle…” (missing word)

p. 442 - sentence 1 is a bit awkward - recommend “As recommended…, we start with”, or “we will start with” or “this discussion will start with”. Sentence 2 also a bit awkward.

p. 443 - above Lee Cyclogenesis - “Special thanks to Dr. Greg West…”?

p445, left column, 10th to last line: Typo.  Change "is" to "its".

p. 445 and 447 - in discussions regarding vorticity and stretching, recommend mentioning the ice skater analogy (where ice skaters bring in their arms to spin faster)

p. 446 - in-text description of Fig 13.21- if column C has maximum vorticity, wouldn’t the cyclone translate to the east, and not to the south?

p. 448 - extra (inconsistent) vertical space between paragraphs

p. 448 - paragraph 2 sentence 3 - “…the winds M are subgeostrophic…” (missing word)

p. 449 - end of paragraph 2 - “…and the ideal gas law…” (missing word)

p. 449 - first full paragraph below equation 13.12, first sentence - I think “for the following reasons” should end with a colon rather than a period. Consider re-wording, e.g., “The prefix quasi is used for reasons outlined below."

p. 450 - paragraph 3 of ‘Application’ section, last sentence - replace “spin-up” (noun) with “spin up” (verb)

p. 450 - last paragraph - would jet streak cause convergence east of the trough, or is it still slower than around the high? i.e., is the wind still “slow around the low”?

p451, left column, sentence before eq. (13.14):  Change "hypsometric" to "hydrostatic".

p. 452 - paragraph 3 sentence 2 - replace “a” with “at” (“…most of this flow happens at mid-levels.”)

p. 452 - under equation 13.17 - replace “mid tropospheric” with “mid-troposphere”

p. 457 - Fig 13.36 - shaded area extends outside of bounding N/E axes

p. 457 - Caption of Fig 13.36 - in last line, replace “support” with “supports”, i.e., “…which supports cyclogenesis.”

p. 459 - second full paragraph, sentence 3 - “…(PVA) by the thermal wind, so we anticipate…” (recommend adding bolded word)

p. 459 - sentence 1 of Info box - “Consider the entrance region of a jet streak.” (missing word)

p. 460 - Sample Application box - Fig j overlaps with heading

p. 460 - Why is it “Q”? Why not some other letter?

p. 461 - second paragraph from end, last sentence. “A moderate convergence zone extends northwest toward Wisconsin”. (need to add s to “extend”)

p. 462 - sentence 3 of ‘Paradox’ section - “Due to mass continuity, we can expect an ageostrophic circulation…” (original wording is a bit awkward)

p. 461-462 - you assume readers know their US geography quite well, which is likely not the case…

p. 463 - paragraph 3 of ‘Mass Budget’ section - you have a question with no question mark - consider re-wording

p. 464 - under equation 13.34 - “where the column bottom surface has area (A)…” (replace “as” with “has”)

p. 467 - line 1 - replace “low-center” with “low-pressure center” or “low center”

p. 467 - second paragraph fron end, sentence 2 - replace “spins-down” with “spins down”

p. 467 - last paragraph - I think this is the first mention of a 3-day life cycle - is this always the case? (You mention it again in the Review section later on)

p. 468 - line 2 of ‘Temperature Advection’ section - replace “west from” with “west of”

p. 469 - sentence 2 of ‘Creation of Baroclinic Zones’ section - “as follows” should be followed by a colon. Consider replacing sentence with “This process is described below.”

p. 471 - line 3 - “vector, we can estimate the Q-vectors…” (a bit awkward)

p. 471 - last sentence before ‘Review’ section - does this imply that clouds exist only ahead of the cold front and the sky is clear behind it?

p. 471 - paragraph 2 of ‘Review’, sentence 1 - suggest changing to “Cyclones rotate counterclockwise (clockwise) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere…”.

p. 471 - paragraph 2 of Review, line 4 - replace “are” with “is” (i.e., "Bad weather (…) is often concentrated…”)

p. 471 - in Scientific Perspective box, suggest moving entire word “Uncertainty” to second line, rather than breaking it up

p. 472 - last paragraph of col 2, sentence 1 - suggest changing ordering of cities to “Vancouver, Victoria, Seattle region”, just so that they are ordered by country. It might also be more correct to replace commas with dashes - i.e. “Vancouver-Victoria-Seattle region”


14. Thunderstorm Fundamentals


p. 483 - last sentence of Fig 14.4b caption - it took a while to understand what you meant by “From the viewpoint you see Fig 14.4a.” because I didn’t notice the little ‘view point’ illustration. I suggest re-wording as “From the viewpoint illustrated at the lower right corner, you would see the storm as in Fig 14.4a.”

p. 486 - Bullet 3 (supercells) - hyphenate “low-precipitation” and “high-precipitation”

p. 486 - sentence 2 of ‘Multicell Thunderstorms’ subsection - replace “see” with “identify”, i.e. “…a weather radar can identify many…”

p. 488 - sentence 3 of Fig 14.13 caption - “Ahead of and behind this squall line…” (add missing word “of”)

p. 488 - paragraph 3 sentence 1 - replace “sublime” with “sublimate”

p. 490 - paragraph 2 sentence 1 - hyphenate “cross-section”

p. 490 - paragraph 3 sentence 1 - hyphenate “well-defined”

p. 491 - last sentence before ‘MCC’ sub-section - “...with wind speeds >= 26 m/s and gusts >= 33 m/s…” (replace second “with” with “and”)

p. 491 - sentence 2 of ‘MCC’ sub-section - …”must have a cold brightness temperature of <= -33C.” (remove hyphen from “brightness temperature” and add missing word “of”)

p. 491 - last sentence in left column - reword as “They can be triggered by weak warm frontal zones and weak mid-tropospheric short waves, and are often associated with low-level jets of wind.”

p. 492 - sentence 1 of last paragraph on page - hyphenate “medium-precipitation”

p. 493 - paragraph 5 sentence 1 - problem with verb tense - “all of these ice particles…melts while falling, and reaches the ground as rain.”

p. 500 - paragraph 4 last sentence - “Also in the Water Vapor chapter is…” (add missing word “the”)

p. 501 - paragraph 2 sentence 1 - “…within the bottom 1km of the atmosphere.” (add missing word “the”)

p. 501 - Fig 15.33 caption - add “th” superscript to percentile values, i.e., “25th”, “75th”, “10th”, 90th” - also for figures 14.42, 14.56 and 14.65

p. 502 - Info box paragraph 3 - the distinction between median and median value seems odd - also there are typos for the lower quartile and upper quartile equations r = (1/4).(n+1) and r = (3/4).(n+1), the “+1” is missing from the text

p. 502 - Info box last 2 paragraphs - in first sentence of each, remove “those”, i.e. “consider those data points ranked…”)

p. 503 - paragraph 1 last 2 sentences - are the left-side quotation marks correct? i.e., should they be angled the other way? If so, this problem likely exists throughout the book and I just happened to notice it here.

p. 503 - first paragraph of CAPE section, last sentence - “CAPE is proportional to the shaded area in Fig 14.34; namely, the area between the LFC and EL altitudes that is bounded by the environmental sounding and the moist adiabat of the rising air parcel.”

p. 503 - paragraph 2 of CAPE, sentence 1 - reword “To explain this, we employ/make use of the definition of…”

p. 503 - line above equation (14.1) - remove “is” after “Thus,”

p. 503 - Fig 14.34 caption - reword as “Surface-based Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) is given by the grey-shaded area for an afternoon pre-storm environment”. OR “The grey-shaded area gives the surface-based CAPE for an afternoon pre-storm environment.”

p. 506 - sentence 2 of right column - “Thus, the the initial conditions…represents the mean layer…” (problem with verb tense)

p. 506 - Fig 14.39 caption - “…you can use the foreacst maximum near-surface air temperature (max T) and dew point temperature (Td) for later…” (add bolded text)

p. 507 - Table 14-1 col 3 - punctuation is inconsistent in last 3 rows - either separate activities by semicolons or commas

p. 507 - paragraph 2 - should point out that MUCAPE is also not a sharp discriminator of thunderstorm intensity

p. 508 - paragraph 2 line 1 - replace period with colon, i.e. “A word of caution: CAPE gives…”

p. 508 - paragraph 2 last sentence - “It is a useful, but not perfect forecast tool, as demonstrated by the lack of sharpness…” (replace “evidenced” with “demonstrated”, and remove comma after “not perfect”)

p. 509 - end of paragraph 2 - “…depending on the output from your calculator’s “arctan” function.” (add bolded words)

p. 509 - under eq (14.12) replace “has units” with “have units”

p. 509 - Fig 14.46 caption - “Wind difference (black arrows) between two altitudes is represented by the vector difference between…” (add bolded words)

p. 510 - paragraph 2 sentence 1 - use either “15 minutes to 1 hour” or “15 min to 1 h” (i.e. abbreviate both or neither)

p. 513 - paragraph 1 last sentence - this is a bit repetitive - suggest rewording as “Using the “from” direction and the wind speed to specify points, the result is a hodograph that implies wind vectors pointing from the origin to the correct directions.”

p. 513 - Fig 14.52 caption - reword last sentence “Wind speeds are in ms-1.”

p. 514 - paragraph under equation (14.14) - reword last 2 sentences into “Equations (14.15) and (14.16) can be used to determine the magnitude and direction, respectively, of the mean shear vector.”

p. 515 - under equation (14.17) - “i and i-1 indicate the top and bottom of the ith layer, respectively” (add bolded words)

p. 516 - paragraph 1 last sentence - reword as “Fig 14.56 also illustrates that greater TSM values support supercells.”

p. 517 - below eq (14.19) underline “levels” and “layers” for emphasis

p. 517 - below eq (14.19) - “[CAUTION: Don’t confuse the mean wind with the mean shear given by equations (14.13) and (14.14).]” (add bolded reference to relevant equations)

p. 518 - paragraph 3 - not clear why the cyclonic and anticyclonic mesocyclones move in different directions

p. 519 - paragraphs 1 and 2 - not clear how curvature determines dissipation

p. 519 - line 2 of left col - “right- and left-moving” (add hyphen to “right”) - also in caption of Fig. 14.62 and title of Fig. 14.62(a)

p. 519 - Fig 14.63 - indicate in caption that sub-figures a-c correspond to Fig 14.62 a-c

p. 521 - sentence 1 - reword “Thunderstorm type depends on the amounts of both instability and wind shear in the pre-storm environmental sounding.” (move the word “both” as indicated).

p. 521 - Fig 14.64 - I was a bit confused about why the dashed vector was rotated when moved to the origin. Maybe clarify that the rotation is not necessary and is just to make it easier to see the wind speed circle at the end of the vector.

p. 522 - Fig 14.65 - last line of text in the figure needs to shift left a bit - the right side of the ‘m’ is overlapping the figure border

p. 522 - 3rd line below eq (14.23) “…statistically shaper (than MLCAPE, MUCAPE and ML LCL) in its ability…” (add bolded text)

p. 522 - sentence 1 of ‘Triggering’ section - “The fourth (and final)…” (is it the final requirement?). Also suggest recapping first 3 requirements here, e.g., insert new sentence after sentence 1: “Recall that the first three requirements are: …”.

p. 523 - Fig 14.68 caption - “CIN based on max surface temperature and dew point temperature forecasts…” (add bolded text)

p. 523 - paragraph 1, last sentence - reword as “For the air parcel to rise above zi, the trigger process must do work against the buoyant forces within this cap region.”

p. 523 - paragraph 2 sentence 3 - “except for the limits of the sum (i.e., zi to LFC vs. LFC to EL).” (suggest adding bolded text)

p. 523 - paragraph 3 sentence 1 - reword “…the area between zi and the LFC bounded by the dry adiabat and the environmental sounding.” (add bolded text)

p. 524 - paragraph 2 sentence 3 - should that be -60 J/kg? (is negative sign missing?)

p. 525 - sentence 1 - suggest rewording “…for smaller values of z_cap, which is the difference between z_LFC and z_LCL (i.e., z_cap = z_LFC - z_LCL), and gives the depth of the nonlocally stable region at the bottom of the storm.”

p. 525 - first sentence of ‘Triggers’ section - change “the boundary-layer air parcels” to “a boundary-layer air parcel” or just “boundary-layer air parcels”

p. 525 - the trigger bullet points aren’t actions. A boundary between air masses won’t trigger lift, but the movement of the boundary will. Maybe change first bullet to “Movement of airmass boundaries”. Points under second bullet have similar issue, e.g. change “mountains” to “air flow over mountains”, etc. Punctuation of points under both bullets is also an inconsistent mix of commas, semicolons and periods

p. 525 - line 2 of last paragraph - change “meteorologist” to “meteorologists”

p. in Figure 14.72, you have labelled your states - I think I made a comment in the Chapter 13 errata email regarding labelling states on maps, and this is a great example of how you could do that

p. 526 - paragraph 2, sentence 2 - “…can persist or propagate (by triggering daughter storms…”

p. 526 - 2nd-to-last paragraph - first sentence talks about when Tstorms will start, and second is about if they will occur. Suggest changing second sentence to “Namely, determine if the forecast high temperature for the day will exceed the convective temperature, and at what time this criteria will be met.”

p. 527 - sentence 2 of Tstorm section - Thunderstorms are nonlinear? Do you mean “Thunderstorm processes are very nonlinear…”?

p. 528 - paragraph 3 sentence 2 - “Thunderstorms usually form in mid-to-late afternoon…” (hyphenate as per bolded text)

p. 528 - Fig 14.76 caption - change line 3 “cooling day and night, for summer over land”

p. 528 - Fig 14.76 caption - line 5 change “heats Q_A” to “heat Q_A”

p. 528 - Fig 14.76 caption - line 7 change “Dash line” to “The dashed line”

p. 528 - Fig 14.76 caption - last 2 lines - reword as “most likely to form within a few hours of sunset” or “around sunset plus or minus a few hours”.

p. 528 - Fig 14.77 - caption refers to shaded boxes - not clear what these are - do you mean the thick grey outlines?

p. 528 - line 6 of ‘Outlooks’ section - reword as “thunderstorm-caused or otherwise” (note addition of hyphen)

p. 528 - first line of ‘watch’ bullet point at bottom of page - “0.5 to 6 h forecast indicating that severe weather is…” (add bolded word)

p. 529 - first line of ‘warning’ bullet point - “0 to 1 h forecast indicating that severe weather…” (add bolded word)

p. 529 - in ‘warning’ bullet, “warning boxes” is not bolded, but “watch boxes” on previous page is - suggest bolding for consistency

p. 529 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - “…what, where, and when severe weather will occur or is occurring…” (suggest adding bolded text)

p. 530 - Table 14-5 - suggest putting asterisks next to abbreviations that will be covered in next chapter and indicating this in the caption

p. 530 - Line 1 - remove “The”, i.e., “Convective outlooks include…”

p. 530 - for all bullet points - is “wind event” defined as winds >= 25 m/s as per p. 528 (clarify)

p. 530 - line 3 of ‘Stability Indices’ section - change “existence” to “formation”

p. 530 - paragraph 3 of ‘Stability Indices’ section, last sentence - “…, and Table 14-7 gives the associated forecast guidelines.” (replace “give” with “gives”)

p. 531 - Table 14-6 caption - inconsistent arrangement of variable definitions (first few have their own lines separated by semicolons, then last couple are in paragraph separated by periods

p. 531 - suggest merging tables 14-6 and 14-7 - change 3rd col header of 14-6 to “Definition” and add fourth column “Values and Interpretation” from Table 14-7

p. 531 - last line in Table 14-7 col 3 - what about ‘tornado’ - is this ‘tornado likely’ or ‘tornado present’?

p. 532 - line 2 - remove hyphen from “severe-storm”

p. 532 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - reword as “…ahead of a cold front that spanned from Illinois to Texas.”

p. 532 - paragraph 2, last sentence - reword as “Cold dry air aloft coming from the west…” or “Cold dry air aloft in the west…”

p. 533 - last sentence of ‘Review’ - reword “The explosive growth of thunderstorms, their relatively small diameters, and their sensitivity to initial conditions make it difficult to forecast thunderstorms."


15. Thunderstorm Hazards


p. 546 - paragraph 3 - suggest removing last sentence (“splat” isn’t a very academic word”)

p. 546 - paragraph 4 sentence 1 - reword as “Why do thunderstorms have scattered showers?”

p. 546 - paragraph 4 last sentence - remove “the original”

p. 546 - first bullet point (left column) - replace “is” with “are”, i.e. “…the upper portions of the Cb cloud are so high…”

p. 546 - “Third” bullet - hyphenate “long-lasting” in line 1

p. 546 - first full paragraph under bullets, sentence 3 - replace “past” with “passed”

p. 546 - line above eq (15.1) remove hyphen from “latent heat”

p 546 - 4 lines below eq (15.1) - “…assuming for simplicity that all of the…” (add bolded words)

p. 547 - end of paragraph 1 - why half of the water? Wouldn’t precipitable water be all of it? Note that if this number (61 mm) gets updated, it is used on p 548 in paragraph 2 sentence 2.

p. 547 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - reword as “Most thunderstorms have approximately 50% efficiency.” The way it is written now suggests cherry-picking data to calculate the average.

p. 547 - paragraph 3 sentence 1 - reword as “Extreme precipitation producing rainfall rates over 100 mm/hr…”

p. 547 - paragraph 3 sentence 3 - remove “As for other natural disasters, the”, so that the sentence starts with “More intense rainfall events…”

p. 547 - Sample application exposition paragraph 2 line 3 - remove “number"

p. 547 - Sample application exposition paragraph 2 last sentence - replace “were extreme events” with “was an extreme event”

p. 547 - Sample application exposition last paragraph sentence 2 - replace “the gust front” with “gust fronts"

p547, right column, Solved Example, first sentence after "Find:".  

Change from "First, use eq. (15.2):"   to 

"First, multiply HRR in eq. (15.2) by ∆t:".    

Also, in the next line, multiply the left side by ∆t.    (The right side is already multiplied by ∆t.)

p. 548 - paragraph 3 sentence 3 - add reference to the sample Application on the previous page so that people don’t miss the other reasons that subsequent storms are less likely near original thunderstorms

p. 548 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 of ‘Hail’ section - reword as “Hailstones are called giant hail (or large or severe hail) if their diameters are between 1.9 and 5cm, though this is rare.”

p. 549 - paragraph 2 sentence 3 - reword the portion in parantheses as “(average rho_ice is 900 kg/m3, but this varies depending on the amount of air bubbles)”

p. 549 - last paragraph sentence 1 - inconsistent punctuation in numbered list - replace the comma before (4) with a semicolon

p. 549 - last paragraph last sentence - replace “it is” with “they are”, i.e., “Regardless of how they are formed…”

p. 550 - paragraph 1 last sentence - remove “relatively”

p. 552 - 2 lines above the ‘Nowcasting’ paragraph - suggest changing the order of the inequality. SHIP >= 1.5 feels more natural

p. 553 - end of first paragraph of ‘Hail Mitigation’ section - change “precisely:" to “with precision:”

p. 553 - Fig 15.10 caption - second to last sentence - specify that “Isotherms are the thin horizontal solid lines.” because you also have thin solid lines around the hail section

p. 557 - end of line 3 - “…cools and loses...” (replace “looses” with “loses”)

p. 557 - first line of paragraph 4 - add hyphen to “precipitation-laden”

p. 558 - Info box line 3 - replace “while” with “whereas”, i.e., “…whereas CAPE is…”

p. 559 - last paragraph sentence 2 - “Term (B) includes the role of the added weight of cold air…” (add bolded text)

p. 561 - second full paragraph - regarding Table 15-2, do both criteria need to be met for a downburst to be classified as a certain intensity, or just one of them? Clarify.

p. 563 - Bullet 4 under the ‘Lightning and Thunder’ heading - what is the “C” in “CA”? Is it “clear air”?

p. 564 - paragraph 4 sentence 2 - replace “from” with “to”, i.e., “…attached to the thunderstorm anvil (Fig. 15.21) or to the extensive stratiform region…”

p. 564 - first bullet at bottom of page - replace “on to” with “onto”

p. 565 - paragraph 2 sentence 1 - reword as “These three conditions can occur in Cb clouds at aititudes where the temperature is between 0 degC and -40 degC.”

p. 565 - paragraph 3 sentence 1 - replace “glass” with “smooth sheet of clear ice”

p. 565 - paragraph 4 sentence 1 - replace “graupel” with “graupel particle”

p. 565 - paragraph 4 - why is the electron transfer in this direction? What would prevent the electron from moving from large to small particle?

p. 565 - Info box paragraph 2 sentence 1 - hyphenate “build-up”

p. 566 - paragraph 2 sentence 4 - change “adds or removes” OR “to/from” so they are consistent, e.g., “Ionization adds or removes electrons to or from the air…”

p. 567 - second from last paragraph, sentence 1 - change first instance of “has been” to “is”, i.e., “Ball lightning is difficult to study, but has been…”

p. 567 - second from last paragraph, sentence 2 - change “strike" to “stroke”?

p. 567 - Scientific perspective box 3e - change “and don’t be” to “and should not be”

p. 568 - Info box end of first paragraph - remove second instance of “strongest”, i.e., “First-stroke peak currents are strongest in winter and in northern Canada.” Also, is this because the breakdown potential is higher for dry air? Maybe mention this (covered on p. 566 paragraph 2).

p. p. 568 - Info box paragraph 2 - very repetetive - “have positive polarity” is repeated 3x in 3 sentences - consider rewording

p. 568 - paragraph 2 sentence 4 - replace “increases” with “increase”, i.e. “Elves are…with radii that increase at the speed of light.”

p. 568 - 'Lightning Detection’ section paragraph 2 - you use the word strike instead of stroke - how do you differentiate between these words?

p. 568 - line 2 of this same paragraph - remove “multiple” (this is implied by “array”)

p. 569 - paragraph 2 of ‘Lightning Hazards’ section - what is the impact on transmission and electronics?

p. 571 - sentence 2 of ‘Thunder’ section - define supersonic

p. 571 - in Fig 15.27 I don’t understand what is meant by “radius if only sound wave”. Radius of what? (both figure and caption)

p. 572 - line 1 of left column - “…(because there is no net change…” (add bolded words)

p. 572 - line 3 of left column - what is a “normal” shock? Should you replace “perpendicular” on line 4 with “normal” or “perpendicular (normal)”?

p. 572 - second sentence under eq (15.23) - replace “sound speed” with “speed of sound”

p. 572 - sentence above eq (15.28) - “…by the shock circle, we can use geometry…” (add bolded words)

p. 572 - paragraph below eq (15.28) last sentence - hyphenate “out-rush”

p. 573 - end of paragraph 3 - “…you can use eq. (15.30) to find the initial pressure…” (add bolded words)

p. 575 - below eq (15.33) - replace “Snell discovered” with “Snelll’s Law states” and un-bold “Snell’s Law” in next sentence. (The way it is currently written, I expect a citation for Snell)

p576.  right column, near eq. (15.38).  Remind the readers that T must be in Kelvin.

p. 576 - 2 lines above eq (15.38) - replace “can be” with “is”, i.e., “…there is a max distance…”

p. 577 - first paragraph of ‘Tangential Velocity’ section, last 2 sentences - suggest removing “vehicles” from first, because “trucks,cars” occur in second

p. 577 - same paragraph, sentence 2 - why faster near the ground? Wouldn’t drag slow them? This is touched on in p. 578 paragraph 3 and fully explained in last paragraph of 581, but some of the concepts might be worth briefly mentioning here)

p. 577 - paragraph above eq (15.40) sentence 2 - reword as “At Ro, the inner and outer tangential wind speeds and the inner and outer pressure deficits match.”

p. 578 - sentence below eq (15.43) - “…and represent the wind relative to that in the center…” (add bolded words)

p. 578 - first full sentence below eq (15.44) has a typo and doesn’t make any sense

p. 579 - column 1 bullet 1 - replace “If threshold of damage” with “If very little damage” or “If damage barely noticeable”

p. 579 - 3 lines above eq (15.46) - replace “range” with “value” (EF=4 is not a range)

p. 579 - Table 15-3 row 3 description - replace “frame houses” with “wood/metal-framed houses” or remove “frame”. Replace “trailer houses” with “mobile homes”. In next 3 rows, suggest removing “frame” or replacing with “wood/metal-framed” as for row 3.

p. 579 - Table 15-3 row 5 description - replace “cars and trains thrown some distance or rolled considerable distances” with “cars and trains thrown or rolled considerable distances”

p. 580 - above eq (15.47) - replace “range” with “value” (T7 is not a range)

p. 579-580 - Tables 15-3 and 15-4 have different punctuation in description column (Table 15-3 is separated by semicolons, Table 15-4 by periods) - change one for consistency. Also heading for column 5 in Table 15-3 should be centred.

p. 580 - Table 15-4 row 3 description - remove apostrophe from “Semis”.

p. 580 - Table 15-4 row 4 description - “Garages and weak outbuildings…”

p. 581 - line 1 - replace “processes” with “phenomena” or something else (water droplets are not a process)

p. 581 - sentence 2 - reword as “…bottom or top part of the tornado visible; rarely is the whole tornado invisible.”

p. 581 - paragraph 3 - is “funnel cloud” the same as “tornado condensation funnel” in Fig 15.35? Clarify.

p. 581 - below eq (15.48) - also specify that T and Td in numerator must be in same units

p581, left column, paragraph 3, line 6:  "..of the air is great enough..."  

p. 581 - last paragraph sentence 1 - how do we know that P is the same in the condensation funnel and at cloud base?

p. 583 - paragraph 3 and Fig 15.38 - can tornadoes re-strengthen and go from e.g., stage 4 back to stage 3? This would be important for storm chasers to know.

p. 583 - Scientific Perspectives box - number 2) remove second comma (actually could remove both)

p. 583 - ‘Outbreaks’ section paragraph 1 last line - replace “every year” with “several years in a row”

p. 583 - bullet 5 - You’re probably trying to keep this whole bullet contained in one line, but “torn.” abbreviation is weird-looking to me

p. 584 - second bullet - could you say “41 tornadoes near the US-Canada border”?

p. 584 - bullet 5 - define “tornado alley”

p. 584 - bullet 6 - So these are not individual tornado outbreaks, but annual totals? This was not clear from  sentence before first bullet on previous page. If annual totals, then maybe don’t change bullet 2 on this page.

p. 584 - paragraph after bullets, last sentence - reword as “The result is parallel…” OR “The aftermath includes parallel…”

p. 584 - Scientific Perspective box - #13 replace “all the debris” with “flying debris”
#15 - briefly explain why
#16 labelled as 14
#16a - reword as “Storm movement as broadcast on radio or TV cannot be trusted.” (the way it is written doesn’t fit with previous “Some difficulties include”
#16b - sentence is missing period
#16 above a - suggest replacing “Some difficulties include:” with “Keep in mind the following:” OR “Keep in mind the following challenges:”
#16e - line 2 remove hyphen from “cut off”, and remove “of your vehicle” from the end of the sentence (repetitive)

p. 584 - last line and into next page - reword “supercell is of concern, then a mean storm vector associated with the “R” in Fig. 14.61 of the previous chapter should be used (i.e., do not use teh “X”.” Also note that in this sentence you could refer readers to the figure in the Sample Application on p. 585 so that they don’t have to open another chapter.

p. 585 - Fig. 15.40 caption line 2 - hyphenate “fixed-coordinate”

p. 586 - first sentence - reword “…axis, this rotation can be expressed as a relative vertical vorticity psi_r.”

p. 586 - paragraph under eq (15.51), last line - remove “Z_TornBL” from parentheses, i.e., “…(roughly 100 m).”

p. 586 - next paragraph sentence 2 - hyphenate “cyclonically-rotating”. Note that this paragraph answers a question that I posed in my comments on Chapter 14 regarding why the right-moving storm is favoured.

p. 586 - last paragraph sentence 2 - “…exists in ambient (outside-of-the-storm) air due to..” (add missing bolded word)

p. 586 - last paragraph sentence 3 - reword as “Once this air is pulled into the inflow region of the thunderstorm…”

p. 587 - line 1 - “Another theory considers shears…” (add missing bolded word)

p. 587 - paragraph 2 line 4 - remove hyphen from “mesoscale base”

p. 587 - paragraph 3 sentence 1 - reword as “Yet another theory suggests that the large-scale rotation about a vertical axis (i.e., synoptic-scale cyclone) can cascade…”

p. 587 - Fig 15.42 b - why is ground green? Stands out quite a bit and I don’t think you used this convention in previous figures.

p. 588 - under eq (15.53) replace “Alternately” with “Alternatively”

p. 588 - 2 lines below eq (15.54) - replace "up- and downdrafts” with “up- and down-drafts”

p. 588 - 4 lines below eq (15.54) - rearrange parentheses like “in eqs. (15.53) and (15.54)”?

p. 588 - end of paragraph below eq (15.54) - replace “spawning” with “prone to spawning”

p. 588 - end of sentence below eq (15.55) - reword end of sentence as “…and V’avg is calculated similarly.”

p. 588 - above eq. (15.56) replace “times the” with “multiplied by the”

p. 588 - line below eq (15.57) - replace period with comma, i.e., “...where N is the number of layers, j = 0 is the bottom…”. Note that in this sentence, you say that j=0 and j=N are winds at the bottom and top of the inflow region - this is not true, j is just an index - reword. Also, remove “of air” from the end of this sentence.

p. 588 - Fig 15.44 - not clear why two images (a and b) are needed here. They don’t seem to tell us anything different.

p. 589 - line 2 - remove “might”

p. 589 - last sentence of paragraph - replace “works slightly better” with “is a slightly better indicator”

p. 590 - Fig 15.46 caption - add “th” superscript to percentile values

p. 590 - paragraph 3 - combine sentences 1 and 3, i.e., “eSRH better discriminates between non-tornadic and tornadic supercells than SRH, and works even if the residual-layer air ingested…”. Follow up with sentence 2 as-is.

p. 590 - last paragraph sentence 2 - but the areas on the two images in Fig 15.44 look the same (i.e., image b area is not 2x image a area). Maybe I am misunderstanding something here.

p. 591 - paragraph 2 line 2 - replace “sounding” with “thermodiagram”

p. 591 - Fig 15.48 caption - add “th” superscript to percentile values

p. 592 - line above eq (15.60) - replace “cylinder” with “a cylinder” or “cylindrical”

p. 592 - 3 lines below eq (15.60) - replace “the z_i” with just “z_i”

p. 592 - Fig 15.50b - add the ‘breakdown bubble’

p. 593 - end of paragraph 3 - reword “…increases from 2 up to 6.”

p. 593 - Fig 15.52 - scale seems unnecessary

p. 593 - last paragraph before Review - maybe also mention pattern of blow-down by straight-line winds from strong low-pressure systems, for example the storm that knocked down lots of trees in Stanley Park (though this is a bit of an aside because it is not a thunderstorm hazard/effect)

p. 593 - column 2 line 3 of ‘Review’ - reword “…particles collide within the thunderstorm updraft…” (add bolded words)


16. Tropical Cyclones


- p. 603 paragraph 2 line 2 - re-order the bodies of water (the way it is currently worded suggests that the Caribbean is an ocean), i.e., “…over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico.”

p. 603 line 4 - remove “Also, the” so that sentence reads “Low-altitude winds also rotate cyclonically (counterclockwise in the N. Hemisphere) around these storms and spiral in towards their centers.” (note changes to bolded words)

p. 603 paragraph 3 sentence 1 - replace second instance of ”tropical cyclones” with “they” i.e., “…in that they do not have fronts.”

p. 603 paragraph 3 line 3 - begin sentence with “Also, tropical cyclones have…”

p. 604 paragraph 3 line 1 - replace “the” with “this” i.e., “In the middle of the eyewall…”

p. 605 Fig 16.4 caption remove space before hyphen in “satellite-derived”

p. 606 categories 4+5 have same concise statement - is this correct?

p. 606 categories 1 and 2 descriptions, remove commas after “screened-in” about half-way through each description

           category 3 description last line - should “water” be replaced with “potable water”?

           category 5 description sentence half-way down - “Most unreinforced masonry walls will fail which can lead to the collapse of the buildings.” - remove “the” as indicated, or possibly replace with “such”

p. 607 table 16-3 caption line 2 - “…during 10-minute periods.” (add bolded word)

p. 607 third bullet point - suggest replacing with “France (Meteo-France, for S. Hemisphere west of 90E).” to be consistent with first two bullets. If this change is made, also remove “and by” from end of bullet 2

p. 607 last sentence and into p. 608 - suggest rewording as “The tracks of tropical cyclones and storms that have weaked from tropical cyclone status to tropical storms continue to turn toward the northeast…”

p. 609 last sentence of col 1 - reword as “…cannot continue to grow and organize into tropical cyclones.”

p. 609 Fig 16.10 caption line 2 replace “during” with “on”

p. 609 Fig 16.10 caption line 5 replace “is the thin solid line.” with “is indicated by the thin solid line.”

p. 610 paragraph 2 line 4 remove hyphen from “less concentrated”

p. 610 info box, paragraph under Fig 16.a, after each (number), add “it”, i.e., “…does three things: (1) it lowers…; (2) it causes…; and (3) it causes…”

p. 610 two lines above ‘ITCZ’ section - replace “Monsoon trough” with “Monsoon troughs

p. 611 Fig 16.13 caption - sentence 2 says “Isoabars of sea-level pressure are solid lines with arrows.” But aren’t these streamlines, not isobars?

p. 612 third full paragraph, end of sentence 1 - “…a mid-tropospheric trough is often over a lower-tropospheric convergence region.”

p. 612 third full paragraph, sentence 2 - “This mid-tropospheric trough has the cyclonic vorticity that encourages…”

p. 612 sentence before ‘Monsoon Trough’ section - remove “the”, i.e., “Roughly 85% of intense Atlantic hurricanes…”

p. 612 Fig. 16.14 caption - remove period before “C = convergence” and put if after instead

p. 612 Fig 16.15 (b) and in caption - TUTT is not defined until next page - might be worth defining it here as well

p. 613 sentence 1 of ‘Tropical Disturbance’ section - dashes surrounding text “generally 200 to 600 km in diameter” are different lengths

p. 613 paragraph 2 sentence 1 of same section - “…as consisting of distinct thunderstorms…” (add missing bolded word)

p. 613 last line of column 1 - remove “a” and remove hyphen from “high pressure", i.e., “Thus, synoptic-scale high pressure starts…”

p. 613 column 2 line 1 of ‘TD’ section - remove hyphen from “high pressure”

p. 613 ‘TD’ section paragraph 2 last sentence - does this storm numbering begin at 1 for each region like how they have their own hurricane name lists?

p. 613 ‘TD’ section paragraph 3 sentence 4 - superscript in units m/s is broken across two lines

p. 614 sentence before ‘TS’ section remove hyphen from “high pressure”

p. 615 paragraph 1 - specify that there are different name lists for different regions (e.g., this is why Figure 16.19 has two storms with ‘J’ names)

p. 615 ‘Movement’ section paragraph 2 sentence 2 - change to “Winds rotate clockwise (counterclockwise) around these highs in the Northern (Southern) hemisphere.”

p. 616 last paragraph sentence 1 - mid-latitude cyclones are more powerful than hurricanes?? This needs some explanation. The Stanley Park wind storm was a strong one, but it was no hurricane.

p. 616 last paragraph sentence 2 - remove second instance of “tropical cyclone”, i.e. “Strong mid-latitude cold fronts can inject cold air into the tropical cyclone, causing it to die.”

p. 617 Info box last paragraph sentence 1 - “Since 1887, there have been two hurricanes…”

p. 618 last sentence above Fig 16.25 (continuing into next page) - reword, e.g., “One important process is the rapid upward movement of air by the thunderstorm updrafts in the eyewall, which deposits enough air molecules at the top of the storm to contribute to high pressure there.”

p. 619 line 2 - suggest replacing period with colon

p. 619 line 3 - hyphenate “cyclonically-moving”

p. 619 last sentence of paragraph 1 - acceleration by definition includes changes in direction - clarify, e.g., “…must change direction and speed up, and thus…” or “…must change direction and increase its speed, and thus…”

p. 619 paragraph 2 sentence 2-3 - replace with “But the thunderstorm updrafts help create such an excessive high pressure at storm top that the pressure-gradient force exceeds the compensating Coriolis force (Fig 16.15), resulting in a net…”

p. 619 higher math box last paragraph line 3 - the underlining under “gradient winds” extends across the space after the word

p. 619 higher math box last line - replace “anticyclone” with “anticyclonic”

p. 620 ‘Fuel Creation’ section paragraph 1 last line - replace “it” with “in”

p. 620 ‘Exhaust’ section sentence 2 - remove both hyphens

p. 621 Fig 16.28 caption last sentence - suggest rewording as “The black area at the bottom of the figure masks the very low pressures at sea level that do not correspond to the pressure scale along the left side of the figure.”

p. 621 ‘Warm Core’ section paragraph 3 end of line 8 - subscript in “P_T eye” is split across two lines

p. 622 Info box paragraph 3 last sentence - “This high pressure aloft…” (add bolded word)

p. 623 left-hand box paragraph 1 - punctuation in list is inconsistent, replace comma before “and (3)” with semicolon

p. 623 same box, under first equation - you divide by P, not the gas law - suggest rewording as “Then divide this by P, substituting the ideal gas law to simplify to:”

p. 623 second from last line - suggest replacing “Sorry” with “Note that”

p. 625 5 lines below eq (16.8) replace “e.g.:” with “e.g.,”

p. 625 7 lines below eq (16.8) - not clear if “atmospheric” should be replaced with “atmosphere” or if you are missing a word somewhere in the sentence

p. 625 last paragraph sentence 1 - hyphenate "cyclone-force”

p. 625 Info box last sentence - what is the category of this ‘typical’ Atlantic hurricane? (From Table 16-1, looks like Cat 3)

p. 626 line above eq (16.10) - insert “where” before P_inf

p. 626 last paragraph of ‘Pressure Distribution’ section sentence 2 - remove last word “radius"

p. 626 last paragraph of ‘Pressure Distribution’ section last sentence remove colon, i.e. “…critical radius of 30 < Ro < 60 km, with…”

p. 626 ‘Tangential Velocity’ section paragraph 1 last sentence - superscript “-1” is in wrong place - should be after “m s”, not after “range”

p. 626 Fig 16.32 - either cut off upper scale at edge of figure or move figure border and extend lower scale

p. 627 first paragraph - in the model of eq (16.11), Ro is approximately 2x eye radius - is that still the case for this model? May be worth mentioning

p. 627 paragraph 3 sentence 1 - “…are relative to those in the eye.” (add bolded words)

p. 627 paragraph 3 sentence 3 - beginning of sentence not capitalized

p. 627 paragraph 3 sentence 4 - replace “the tropical cyclone” with “tropical cyclones”

p. 627 ‘Radial Velocity’ section sentence 1 - suggest rewording as “For an idealized tropical cyclone, boundary-layer air is trapped below the top of the boundary layer as it converges horizontally…”

p. 627 line below equation (16.14) - “…is the radial velocity component, which is negative…”

p. 628 first full paragraph sentence 1 - suggest rewording as “As wind velocities increase as they move toward the eye wall…”

p. 628 Fig 16.36 caption line 2 - replace “motion inward” with “inward motion”

p. 629 paragraph 3 sentence 2 - “…dashed green line between X’s in…”

p. 629 ‘Temperature’ section line 1 - “Suppose that the pressure difference…”

p. 629 Fig 16.38 - hyphenate “15 km-thick”

p. 630 sentence 2 - “This is because the sun has been at its highest in the sky…”

p. 630 sentence 3 - “…of Atlantic Hurricanes, by month.”

p. 630 Fig 16.40 caption - “…and Major Hurricanes, by month.”

p. 630 Table 16-6 description - replace “major portion” with “most active period”, i.e., “Start and end dates are for the most active period of the storm season, but some storms occur outside of this peak season.”

p. 630 Table 16-6 - row 5 put a period in “S. Indian” to be consistent with “N. Indian” above

p. 630 Table 16-6 - only the first two rows have specific start/end dates - is this because they have “official” seasons? If so, specify in table caption and/or in text above.

p. 630 Table 16-6 - in third column, replace “/“ with “ - “ for consistency between rows with different numbers of peaks

p. 631 end of paragraph 1 - “and better surfing further away).”

p. 631 paragraph 2 last sentence - “There may have been…”

p. 631 paragraph 3 sentence 2 - why is the ITCZ weak/nonexistent here?

p. 631 paragraph 6 last sentence - remove “the”, i.e., “Since the late 1990s and 2000s, hurricane power has increased again.”

p. 631 first sentence of paragraph 6 - “The El Nino/La Nina cycle also causes long time-scale variations in hurricane activity.”

p. 631 column 2 paragraph 1 sentence 2 reword as “With population growth, population density increases in coastal areas that are seen as desirable in spite of the threat of tropical cyclones.”

p. 631 column 2 paragraph 1 last sentence - replace “human impact” with “impact on humans”

p. 631 column 2 paragraph 3 - this discussion sounds like an opinion, rather than fact or concensus - you may consider re-wording

p. 631 column 2 paragraph 5 sentence 2 - remove “poor” i.e., "…sometimes the warning does not reach rural people…”

p. 631 column 2 paragraph 5 last sentence - these are large decreases - why? Is the warning system improving? Has there been more development (i.e., less rural)?

p. 631 column 2 last paragraph line 1 - remove hyphen from “tropical storm hazards” and re-word sentence as “These aspects of tropical storm hazards are therefore social (cultural, political, religious, etc.).

p. 631 column 2 last paragraph sentence 2 - replace “Do not assume” with “It cannot be assumed”

p. 631 Fig 16.41 - lines are surge and shading is what?

p. 632 paragraph 2 line 3 - “per unit area”

p. 633 end of first full paragraph - “…where it begins to pile up, creating a storm surge…”

p. 633 paragraph 2 sentence 1 - suggest replacing “sloshing” with “drainage”

p. 634 two sentences below the bullets - do you mean that the surge can work its way up rivers 10-15 km inland from the coast? Clarify.

p. 634 Fig 16.45 caption line 1 - replace “surface wind-generated waves” with “wind-generated surface waves”

p. 634 Fig 16.46 caption - what are the data points on the graph?

p. 635 paragraph 2 line 3 - “gives a historical description…”

p. 635 Table 16-8 caption - what do the terms “clean full” and “chase, full and by” mean?

p. 636 For B=4,5, what are “white horses”?

p. 637 paragraph 3 sentence 3 - “…Americus, Georgia, where 33 people died in 1994.”

p. 637 paragraph 4 line 2 - “…deaths have been caused by…”

p. 637 paragraph 4 sentence 2 - “many find it hard to believe that these/they can become impassable.”

p. 637 ‘Thunderstorms’ section paragraph 1 last sentence - is there less lightning because the precipitation is warm? i.e, the graupel charge-swapping process does not occur as often?

p. 637 ‘Prediction’ section paragraph 1 sentence 3 - remove hyphen from “tropical cyclone position”

p. 637 ‘Prediction’ section last paragraph sentence 1 - replace “and has lots of error.” with “and is prone to error.”

p. 638 column 1 first full sentence - “But different models yield different forecasts due to the way they handle…” (i.e., add some indication of why they differ)

p. 638 sentence 2 - Don’t start sentence with “So” - suggest “Human forecasters therefore consider all available NWP model forecasts…”

p. 638 Fig 16.49 caption - make a note here that uncertainty is greater inland because of the greater forecast horizon associated with this travel distance

p. 638 paragraph 2 sentence 2 - “Advances have been made based on measurements of sea-surface temperatures…”

p. 638 ‘Safety’ bullet 2 - “…safest areas may not be in your home…”

p. 638 last paragraph sentence 3 - “It is best to get an early start…”

p. 638 last paragraph sentence 4 - remove hyphen from “board up”

p. 639 ‘Review’ paragraph 2 sentence 2 - “…which ultimately drives a circulation similar to…”

p. 639 ‘Review’ paragraph 4 last sentence “temperatures, and pressures” need to be pluralized

p. 639 last line - “…reduced atmospheric pressure head within the eye.”

p. 639 Graffito box paragraph 4 line 1 - suggest inserting comma after “vibrating"


17. Regional Winds


p. 645 - paragraph 1 - font size is smaller than other text

p. 645 - 2 lines above eq (17.1) “The probability distribution of mean wind speeds M at any location is described by…”  (suggest adding bolded text)

p. 646 - 3rd full paragraph - reword to passive voice and remove hyphen from “electrical power", i.e. “Wind speed distributions are used to estimate electrical power generation, and when designing buildings and bridges to withstand extreme winds.”

p. 647 - ‘Wind Turbine’ section paragraph 1- how is KE related to power?

p. 647 - on third line of same paragraph, replace “equals” with “is” or “is simply", i.e., “The rate at which this energy is blown through a wind turbine is simply the wind speed.”

p. 647 - ‘Wind Turbine’ section paragraph 2 line 1 - replace “larger radii turbines” with “larger-radius turbines” or “turbines of larger radii”

p. 647 - Fig 17.4 caption would it be more correct to say “Grey region shows the air that transfers/has transferred some of its energy to the wind turbine.”? i.e., is the grey area downstream still transferring KE to the turbine, or has it already done so, and now it is just air that has been modified by the turbine? Clarify.

p. 648 - 2 sentences above ‘Thermally-Driven Circulations’ section - how is cut-out achieved? Are there brakes or a locking mechanism that is applied?

p. 649 - 2 lines below eq (17.3) - “C_w ~ 5 is the vertical drag coefficient…T_ve is the average absolute virtual temperature…g = 9.8 m/s2 is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration…” (add bolded text)

p. 649 - 4 lines below eq (17.4) “synoptic- and meso-scales” (add hyphens)

p. 650 - end of paragraph below eq (17.5) - In this chapter, you start using the term ‘absolute temperature’ to describe temperature measured in Kelvin - I actually had to check that this is what this meant (i.e., a glossary would have helped), because I was not familiar with this name. Suggest re-wording sentence as “Use absolute temperature (i.e., temperature measured in degrees Kelvin) in the denominator of the equation above.”, OR stop using the term ‘absolute temperature’ in this chapter (it is inconsistent with earlier chapters anyway)

p. 651 - 2 lines above eq (2) - clarify that exp can be represented by the infinite series 1-y+y^2/2+… i.e. “But exp(-y) can be represented by the infinite series exp(-y) ~ 1-y+…. Also indicate where the series is truncated.

p. 652 , right column, first paragraph. Replace the phrase "use the approximation above" with "use eq. (17.6), which gives:".

p. 652 - under eq (17.7) - “delta-theta_v is the virtual potential temperature difference between…” (add bolded word)

p. 652 - 3 lines from bottom - replace “and” with “of”, i.e. “…and durations of many days.”

p. 653 - line 2 replace “the V-wind” with something more description such as “the across-slope flow, V”

p. 653 - 2 lines below eq (17.9) remove second instance of “against”, i.e.”…against both the ground and the slower air aloft,…”

p. 653 - ‘Night’ sub-section paragraph 1 sentence 4 - Under what conditions would the katabatic winds end in a turbulent eddy higher above the valley floor?

p. 653 - Fig 17.10 caption end of first sentence - hyphenate “down-valley” or write as “down the valley”

p. 655 - second full paragraph - I am having a hard time picturing this “feeder” of onshore cool flow that is half as thick as the SBH - can it be added to Fig 17.12? The cool air portion in Fig 17.12 is not half as thick as the SBH, so I am confused.

p. 655 - last paragraph sentence 1 - suggesting changing first instance of “progresses” i.e., “…but advances further over land and water as the day progresses.”

p. 656 - above eq (17.13) - is “≠ 30 deg” a typo? Why would the relationship not work at 30 deg? Can a sea breeze not exist at this latitude?

p. 657 - Fig 17.15 caption - need period before “(a) and (b) are two ways…”

p. 657 - Fig 17.15 caption - next sentence is a bit ambiguous (sounds like you are saying c and d are different from each other). Consider rewording as “In contrast, (c) and (d) both show a linear change of T with height…”

p. 658 - end of paragraph 1 - you define “Absolute”, but it it isn’t used anywhere around here. Remove this sentence.

p. 658 - paragraph 2 sentence 1 - wouldn’t cold air lead to increased gravity rather than reduced, because it is more dense? This may need further explanation.

p. 658 5 lines below eq (17.16) remove hyphen from “statically stable”

p. 658 - paragraph 3 - a figure illustrating group speed and contrasting it with wave speed would be very helpful

p. 660 - ‘Hydraulic Jump’ section paragraph 1 sentence 3 - replace “an” with “a”, i.e. “…a hydraulic jump…”

p. 661 - end of paragraph 1 (second to last sentence) same change (“A hydraulic jump…”)

p. 661 - paragraph 1 - in description of hydraulic jump, add a brief mention of hydraulic jumps in streams, which people will have seen, and will be able to picture

p. 661 - Fig 17.20 is referenced in the text before Fig 17.19 - swap their order. Note that the Fig 17.21 caption refers to “previous figure”, so this will need to be edited as well.

p. 661 - ‘Short Gaps’ section sentence 1 - reword as “For short gaps, open-channel hydraulics can be used, while neglecting Coriolis force.”

p. 662 - end of first sentence - suggest adding bolded text “…regions due to irregularities in the valley shape, or by obstacles, just like the hydraulic jumps you can see in irregular stream channels.”

p. 664 - line 1 is very cramped and looks like one long word - need to impose some spacing

p. 665 - third full paragraph, sentence 2 - “The jet core height is centered vertically about 1/3 of the distance…” (suggest adding bolded word to be a bit more clear)

p. 655 - third full paragraph, sentence 3 - you say the altitude is 50-300 m along the west coast of N. America, but up to 1 km west of the Sierra Nevada in California. Is this because the sierra nevada are higher than coastal mountain ranges? Is the jet along the Sierra Nevada over land rather than water? Is the 50-300 m altitude valid along the entire coast?

p. 667 - second to last paragraph, last sentence - “The cavity and rotor circulations are driven by the wind shear like a bike chain turning a gear.” (suggest adding bolded word)

p667, left column, eq. 17.53.   Assuming zo is the height above ground where the extrapolated wind speed becomes zero, then the eq should be M = (u*/k) ln[(z - d) / (zo - d) ] , where d is the displacement distance.   (The original equation is missing the -d in the denominator.  Note, if zo is used as a roughness length scale and not as an actual height above ground, then "d" would not be in the denominator.)

p. 668 - first sentence under eq (17.33) - clarify that this is due to convergence and divergence of the streamlines as illustrated in Fig 17.31

p. 668 - third sentence under eq (17.33) - this is first use of term “skin drag” - define term or just say “surface friction” or “surface drag”

p. 668 - last sentence before ‘Streamlines’ section - “…not just the bottom of this layer that touches the mountain.” (remove “of this”)

p. 670 - first full paragraph, sentence 4 - “potential energy per unit mass.” (add bolded word)

p. 670 - end of paragraph 2 - it still seems like this should be increased gravity…

p. 670 - higher math box Fig 17.d caption - “Forces acting on an air parcel following a streamline.” (add bolded words)

p. 670 - higher math box paragraph 1 - replace colon after “streamline s” with a period

p. 671 - bullet 1- “anywhere that the flow is turbulent” (suggest adding bolded word, though it is technically grammatically correct as-is)

p. 671 - bullet 2 - change “which” to “that”, i.e., “behind obstacles that create turbulent wakes or that cause sudden changes in the flow”

p. 672 - above eq (17.44) what factors influence SW? i.e., it is proportional to…?

p. 672 - last paragraph, sentence 1 - suggest rewording as “As air nears the stagnation point, wind speed decreases, and pressure increases as air molecules pile up. This leads to an increase in temperature as described by the ideal gas law.” (or something like that)

p. 673 - first full paragraph below eq (17.47), sentence 1 - suggest rewording as “This effect is called dynamic warming or dynamic heating - an effect that should be considered when deploying thermometers in the wind, because winds will stagnate when they hit the thermometer.”

p. 673 - last sentence - “Fig 17.35 shows stagnation-pressure increase with increasing flow speed.” (suggest adding bolded text)

p. 674 - paragraph 2 sentence 1 - replace “3” with “three”

p. 674 - info box line 3 - remind readers how Cp and Cv differ

p. 675 - end paragraph 2 - how is “foehn” pronounced?

p. 676 - ‘Foehn and Chinook’ section paragraph 2 sentence 3 - “austru (Romania), and aspre (France).” (add bolded word)

p. 676 - ‘Foehn and Chinook’ section paragraph 2 sentence 4 - replace “with” with “by”, i.e., “…can be accompanied by a very rapid temperature increase…”

p. 676 - ‘Foehn and Chinook’ section paragraph 2 sentence 5 - replace “sublimes” with “sublimates”, i.e., “…rapidly melts and sublimates the snow…”

p 676.  Update the Foehn and Chinook section based on the paper by Elvidge and Renfrew, 2016, BAMS, 97 (March), p455-466.

p. 677 - paragraph 2 of ‘Canopy’ section - this is just one long sentence. Suggest breaking it up.

p. 677 - 6 lines from bottom of page - suggest putting “(4)” after “Finally”, i.e., “Finally (4), pick any point…” Also, in this section, refer readers to the sample application on the next page for an example.

p. 677 - 3 lines from bottom of page - remove period after “calcualte u*”

p. 678 - second sentence below eq (17.54), punctuation in list of attenuation coefficient values is inconsistent (some commas, some semicolons)

p. 679 - below eq (17.55) - careful, H/W is only dimensionless if the units are the same. Maybe specify this somewhere.

p. 679 - ‘Review’ section sentence 1 - “The probability of any wind speed at a particular location can be described…” (suggest adding bolded text)

p. 679 - ‘Review’ section sentence 2 - perhaps mention that winds can be too strong for wind power (cut-out)

p. 679 - ‘Review’ section paragraph 4 sentence 1 - remove the dash and hyphenate “ synoptic-scale, i.e., “The Bora is a cold downslope wind driven dynamically by the synoptic-scale flow."


18. Atmospheric Boundary Layer


p. 687 - sentence 2 - suggest rewording as “The daily cycle of radiative heating causes a daily cycle of sensible and latent heat fluxes between the land surface and the air during clear skies.”

p. 687 - sentence 3 - suggest rewording - it seems a bit obvious/redundant to point out that the bottom of the troposphere is in contact with the ground

p. 687 - ‘Stability’ section paragraph 1 sentence 1 - “Static stability controls the formation of the ABL…” (add missing bolded word)

p. 688 - second full paragraph sentence 2 - reword for clarify - “When moved from its initial capture altitude, the parcel temperature could differ from that of the surrounding environment, thereby causing buoyant forces.”

p. 688 - 3rd full paragraph sentence 2 - would it be more correct to say that “air flow is laminar”? i.e. “…air flow in a statically stable environment is laminar.”

p. 688 - 3rd paragraph from bottom, line 2 - “…and is then is forcibly lifted…” (remove second “is”)

p. 688 - second paragraph from bottom, sentence 2 - change first word, add comma, and fix problem with verb conjugation - “Conversely, if displaced downward from its initial height, the parcel would be warmer…and would feel…”

p. 690 - 4th full paragraph - you say that “there is always a strong stable layer or temperature inversion capping the ABL”, but on p. 691, second full paragraph says “…synoptic forcings…so powerful that they easily lift the capping inversion or eliminate it altogether.” Is this contradictory? Maybe re-word or add to the end of p. 691 paragraph 2 sentence 2 “…or eliminate it altogether such that the ABL spans the entire troposphere and is capped by the temperature inversion at the tropopause.”

p. 691 - line 1 - hyphenate “large-diameter”

p. 691- second full paragraph - replace first word with “Conversely” or “In contrast”

p. 691 - second full paragraph last sentence - replace “and as it is” with “or”, i.e., “…as it is diluted with cleaner air aloft or washed out by rain.”

p. 691 - 3rd full paragraph sentence 3 - replace “and was discussed in” with “as discussed in”

p. 691 - 3rd full paragraph sentence 4 - text suggests that lows move highs together - maybe reword as “When the ABLs or airmasses that were previously formed under different high-pressure centers are drawn toward each other…”

p. 691 - would it be possible to not have Fig 18.7 split across two pages?

p. 692 - ‘ABL Structure’ section line 3 - remove hyphen from “statically unstable”

p. 692 - ‘ABL Structure’ paragraph 1 last sentence - “..pollutants and moisture from the previous day’s mixed layer…” (add bolded word)

p. 692 - ‘ABL Structure’ paragraph 4 - use “(a)” and "(b)” to refer to Figs 18.9, rather than just “Day” and “Night”

p. 692 - ‘ABL Structure’ paragraph 4 sentence 1 - is “humidity mixing ratio” redundant? Suggest rewording as “humidity (mixing ratio)” or “mixing ratio (humidity)”

p. 692 - last sentence - “Next, we will look at…” (add bolded text)

p. 693 - paragraph 1 sentence 2 - replace “during day” with “during the day” or “during daytime”

p. 693 - paragraph 1 sentence 3 - replace “during night” with “at night” or “overnight”

p. 693 - paragraph 2 sentence 1 - rearrange as “The cumulative effect of surface heating and cooling on ABL evolution is more important than the instantaneous heat flux.”

p. 693 - ‘Nighttime’ sub-section paragraph 1 sentence 1 - why is heat flux from air to ground approximately constant?

p. 694 - paragraph under eq (18.2b), last sentence - “…(bottom 5 - 10% of the ABL).” (add bolded word)

p. 694 - second paragraph under eq (18.2b) sentence 1 - remove first comma “…create strong turbulence and cause pollutants, potential temperature…”

p. 694 - Fig 18.11 and Fig 18.12 captions - replace “left” and “right” with “(a)” and “(b)”

p. 694 - Fig 18.11 and Fir 18.12 captions sentence 2 - reword as “The dashed line indicates the adiabatic lapse rate.”

p. 695 - paragraph 2 sentence 1 - are days not longer than nights over water or during cloudy weather? Suggest rewording as “During summer at mid- and high-latitudes, days are longer than nights, leading to net heating during fair weather over land.”

p. 695 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - suggest rewording as “The temperature sounding taken at the end of a 24-hour period of such conditions is warmer than a sounding taken at the start of that period.”

p. 695 - Fig 18.13 caption - remove hyphen from “fair weather"

p. 695 - Fig 18.13 caption - replace “18 local time” with “18:00 local time” or “18 h local time"

p. 695 - Fig 18.13 caption - replace “ending sounding” with “final sounding”

p 695, Fig. 18.13c and d for Winter, change the "18" hour to "16", to correspond to the earlier sunset time as indicated in Fig. 18.14.

p. 695 - first paragraph in right-side column sentence 1 - wouldn’t this be true over water too?

p. 695 - first paragraph in right-side column, sentence 2 - sounds like temperature is decreasing consistently during the 24-hr period - maybe replace “over 24 hours” with “after 24 hours”

p. 695 - Fig 18.14 caption - last sentence is inconsistent - suggest rewording as “…white = unstable, light grey = neutral (as in the RL), and darker greys = stronger static stabilities.”

p. 696 - remove hyphen from ‘Stable ABL Temperature’ heading

p. 696 - paragraph 2 of ‘Stable ABL’ section, line 1 - incorrect usage of word “contiguously” - suggest either “For a simplified case of a turbulent, stable ABL…” or “For a simplified case of a uniformly turbulent, stable ABL…”

p. 696 - second to last sentence - replace “as the square root of time” with “with the square root of time”

p. 696 - last sentence - replace “growth” with “growth rate” i.e., "Thus, the fast growth rate of the SBL early in the evening decreases to a much slower growth rate by the end of the night." (and add/replace bolded words) - alternately, “Thus, the rapid growth of the SBL…much slower growth rate…"

p. 697 - paragraph 3 last sentence - rearrange, i.e. “ that the area under the curve (hatched in Fig. 18.16a) equals the cumulative heating.”

p. 698 - 2 lines below eq (18.7) could the notation “theta(just above z_i)”, “theta(just below z_i)” be changed? e.g. “theta_z<zi”, “theta_z>zi” (using subscripts)

p. 698 - second full sentence under eq (18.7) - “…as a function of the jumps in humidity…or wind speed that occur at the top of the ML, respectively.” (change/add bolded text)

p. 698 - second to last paragraph, last sentence - replace “thermodynamic methods” with “thermodynamic method” or say “The flux-ratio and thermodynamic methods usually…”

p. 699 paragraph 2 last sentence - reword as “The actual wind speed over a large central region of the ABL is nearly equal to this theoretical M_BL wind speed.”

p. 699 - last full paragraph, last sentence - suggest rewording as “Then, after sunrise, turbulence begins mixing the jet with slower wind speeds closer to the ground, and the jet disappears.”

p. 699 - Fig 18.19 caption - not clear that the contour labels are heights unless you happen to look at the “z=500 m” line first - clarify in caption

p. 700 - first full paragraph sentence 1 - “found empirically” = “measured”? Perhaps simplify this sentence.

p. 700 - ‘Drag’ section paragraph 2 sentence 3 - suggest rewording as “The amount of friction force per unit surface contact area is called stress, tau, and acts parallel to the surface.”

p. 700 - ‘Drag’ section paragraph 2 sentence 4 - replace “area” with “surface” (more correct, as pressure acts isotropically on a volume’s bounding surface)

p. 700 - ‘Drag’ section paragraph 2 last sentence - add “(see Appendix A).” to end of sentence

p. 700 - last sentence - clarify, i.e., “…without moving the top book relative to the table, you must”, or “while keeping the top book stationary relative to the unmoving table, you must…”

p. 700 - Table 18-1 row 7 change “large size obstacles” with “large-sized obstacles”

p. 701 - sentence 4 - asphalt doesn’t get “pushed along by the wind” - suggest rewording, e.g., “In turn, the surface feels a stress due to air drag.”

p. 701 - paragraph 2 sentence 1 - suggest figure or example to compare and contrast/define turbulent motion and molecular viscosity

p. 701 - eq (18.10) - when I read this, I had already forgotten what tau is - suggest defining above, e.g., “Because air is a fluid, it is often easier to study the stress (tau) per unit density (rho) of air.”

p. 701 - paragraph above eq (18.11) combine sentences 1 and 2 - “For fluid flow, turbulent stress is proportional to wind speed squared, and also increases with surface roughness.”

p. 702 - first full sentence - “The drag coefficient decreases as the air becomes more statically stable and turbulent drag decreases.” (suggest adding bolded text)

p. 702 - second full sentence - suggest clarifying i.e., “For unstable air, turbulence dominates, and roughness is less important, so alternative approaches…” (add/change bolded words)

p. 702 - Fig 18.21 caption - remove hyphen from “statically neutral”

p. 702 - ‘Log Profile’ section paragraph 1 sentence 2 - remove hyphen from “statically neutral”

p702, right column, eq. (18.14a), add "for z >= zo."

p. 702 - ‘Log-Linear Profile’ section - after first sentence, add another sentence, i.e., “This is because turbulence is unable to cause mixing that would lead to more uniform wind speeds such as seen in the neutral SL and unstable RxL in Fig. 18.20.”

p. 704 - last full paragraph last sentence - reword, i.e., “However, differences in feedback lead to difference between the radix layer and surface layer.”

p. 705 - first full sentence - “However, such feedback is broken for convective turbulence (Fig 18.22b), because it is generated…” (remove second instance of “turbulence” with “it” as indicated)

p. 705 - Fig 18.23 caption - “…wind speed U is shown by the zigzag line.” (add missing bolded word)

p. 705 - under ‘Mean and Turbulent Parts’ heading, suggest using bullets for ‘mean wind’, ‘waves’, and ‘turbulence’ and/or add semicolons to end of first two

p. 705 - move the sentence below equations (18.20a-e) to end of paragraph above these equations, i.e., right after “This mean wind can be subtracted…(Fig 18.23).”

p. 706 - ‘Variance’ section, first sentence - too specific - suggest rewriting as “The variance sigma^2 of wind speed (vertical is used in this example) is an overall statistic of gustiness:”

p. 707 - eq (18.24) - why is it stronger in the V direction than the U direction?

p. 707 - equation (18.27) has equalities, but above, you say turbulence is isotropic if variances are nearly equal - either remove “nearly”, or replace “=“ with “≈”

p707, right column, The bottom Sample Application.  The table is incorrect, but the curves in the graph are correct.  For the heights listed in the table, starting with the first row in the table, the correct sigma_u values for the unstable ABL should be:  1.920, 1.666, 1.470, 1.212, 1.073, 0.975, 0.960, 0.960 .   The correct sigma_w values should be: 0.000, 1.167, 1.409, 1.621, 1.679, 1.572, 1.103, 0.660  .

p. 708 - first sentence - replace “or constant entropy” with “or of constant entropy” or “or conserving entropy”

p. 708 - I have always seen “Turbulent” KE, not “Turbulence” KE - and review section (p. 717 paragraph 5), you switch to “turbulent” - check for consistency

p. 708 - first sentence after eq (18.28) - does this mean that TKE is greater if the BL depth is greater? Clarify.

p. 708 - second sentence after (18.28) - replace “made” with “carried out” or “done”, i.e., “The production is done mechanically by wind shear and…”

p. 708 - Graffito box - does the original text you are quoting use the word “whirls” or “whorls”? I have seen both used in text referencing this rhyme.

p. 709 - right above equation (18.34a), put small space between R_f and the following colon (the f and colon overlap a bit)

p. 709 - Higher math box, last sentence - the way it is worded sounds like k and z depend on the value of C_D - suggest rewording as “For C_D ≈ 1, k = 0.4 (von Karman’s constant), and z = 10 m, the result is…”

p. 710 - Fig 18.24 caption sentence 2 - “Shapes and rates of plume dispersion are indicated by dark spots or waves.” (change bolded text)

p. 710 - Fig 18.24 caption sentence 4 - “Isopleths of TKE intensity are given by the dark diagonal lines.” (change bolded text)

p. 710 - Fig 18.24 - in figure, move left-side “Rf=inf” up a bit so it is in line with “Rf=-inf” on right side. Also check the vertical spacing in the lines of “S Shear Generation Rate” - spacing looks larger than in other text on figure

p. 710 - ‘Free and Forced’ section sentence 2 - put variables in parentheses, i.e. “the shear (S) and buoyancy (B) terms.”

p. 710 - ‘Free and Forced’ section paragraph 5 sentence 1 - replace “For B negative” with “For B < 0” or “When B is negative”

p. 710 - last sentence - “…is used in the Air Pollution chapter to help…” (add missing bolded word)

p. 711 - first full paragraph below eq (18.36), sentence 2 - “It is positive where both variables increase and/or decrease together.” (replace and with and/or as indicated to cover cases where not monotonically increasing/decreasing)

p. 711 - second full paragraph below eq (18.36) sentence 1 - remove “a and b” from end of sentence (repetitive)

p. 711 - move the first sentence below eq (18.37) to above, just after sentence 1 of that paragraph, i.e. “The correlation coefficient, r_a,b is defined as the covariance between a and b normalized by the standard deviations of the two variables. By normalized, we mean that…”

p. 711 - last 2 paragraphs and in Fig 18.25 - replace all “= +” with “> 0” and “= -“ with “< 0”

p. 712 - first word - change to “Conversely” or “In contrast”

p. 712 - paragraph 1 sentence 2 - replace “warmness” with “warmth” (warmness is a word, but it seems odd to use in a scientific text)

p. 712 - end of paragraph 1 - replace “= -“ with “< 0”

p. 712 - end of paragraph 2 - replace “that is” with “of”, i.e., “…horizontal area of 1 m^2.”

p. 712 - paragraph under eq (18.38b) - combine sentences 4+5, i.e., “Therefore, momentum flux…would have units of … (see Appendix A).”

p. 714 - higher math box - under second to last equation - “…are averages of averages, and can be rewritten as just the original averages.” (need pluralization of first “averages” and replace “rewritten by” with “rewritten as” as indicated by bolded text)

p. 714 - higher math box - last paragraph sentence 2 - replace “has already been” with “was”, i.e., “the turbulence flux divergence term was already parameterized…”

p. 714 - ‘Turbulence Closure’ section paragraph 1 last sentence add hyphens and change “size” to “sized”, i.e., “Medium- and large-sized turbulent eddies…”

p. 714 - ‘K-Theory’ section line 4 - change “analogous to” to “analogously to” or “in a way analogous to”

p. 714 - last sentence in this page ends abruptly - I expected it to continue on next page - consider rewriting as “For example, heat flux F_H can be modelled as:”

p. 715 - paragraph above eq (18.43) sentence 1 - “When K-theory is used…” (add missing bolded word)

p. 715 - paragraph below eq (18.43), last sentence - replace “r or U,V” with “r, U, or V”

p. 715 - Fig 18.26 - what are the thin black lines and arrows in Fig 18.26a? Clarify in caption or in text

p. 715 - scientific perspective box paragraph 2 - “…one or more ‘fudge factors’ are often included in the substitute term to give it the correct behavior or order-of-magnitude.” (put quotation marks around first use of “fudge factor” and replace “to make it have” with “to give it” as indicated by bolded text)

p. 715 - scientific perspective box - at end of list item (6), add “, and”

p. 715 - scientific perspective box, second to last paragraph sentence 2 - add appropriate equation number(s) for w_T equation

p. 716 - sentence 1 - rewrite as “K-theory is not suitable for convective ABLs…” or “K-theory has difficulty with convective ABLs…”

p. 716 - paragraph 1 sentence 2 - replace “backed out” with “calculated” or “computed”

p. 716 - Fig 18.27 caption - “…(a) the observed potential temperature (theta) profile over a forest…” (add missing bolded word and put theta in parentheses)

p. 716 - ‘Nonlocal Closure’ section sentence 1- replace “all ranges of” with “the full range of” and replace “during turbulence” with “under turbulent conditions”, i.e., “…you can look at the full range of distances across which air parcels move under turbulent conditions (Fig 18.28).”

p. 716 - ‘Nonlocal Closure’ section paragraph 2 last sentence - rewrite as “This could partially or completely counteract the negative contribution…”

p. 716 - last paragraph before ‘Review’, sentence 1 - “As you can probably anticipate, a better approach would be to consider eddies of all sizes in addition to nonlocal air-parcel movement.” (replace original text with bolded)

p. 716 - Fig 18.28 caption - very long sentence - suggest trying to break it up, also put theta in parentheses

p. 716 - Review sentence 1 - replace comma with dash, or add bolded text as in “We live in a part of the atmosphere known as the boundary layer (ABL), which occupies the bottom 200 m to 4 km…”

p. 716 - Review section - suggest swapping paragraphs 2 and 3 - if you do, first sentence on p 717 should begin with “In the ABL during daytime…” to specify that you are talking about ABL again

p. 717 - paragraph 1 sentence 1 - “under fair weather conditions (i.e., in anticyclonic or high-pressure regions), vigorous turbulence mixes potential temperature, humidity, wind speed, and pollutants such that they are nearly uniform...” (add/replace bolded text)

p. 717 - paragraph 1 sentence 2 - hyphenate “free-atmosphere”

p. 717 - “Heat fluxes, moisture fluxes, and momentum fluxes (stress) can be expressed…” (suggest making changes as per bolded text)


19. Pollutant Dispersion


p. 723 - paragraph 1 sentence 3 - would it be more correct to say that “The reaction by-products are waste or pollution.”? i.e., “growth or motion” is the product.

p723, left column,  Third item under Contents.    The "T" is missing from the section title "Turbulence  Statistics".

p. 723 - suggest removing paragraph 2

p. 723 - info box last paragraph sentence 1 - missing units “M_s = 46.01 g/mol”

p. 724 - bullet 1 in paragraph 3 add comma to end

p. 725 - second to last paragraph, last sentence - change “emission” to “emissions”, i.e., “…from known emissions and weather conditions.”

p725, right column, Table 19-1.   PM10 is not typically referred to as 'Fine Particulates'. The fine fraction begins at  < 2.5 um.  So re-label in the table as:
PM10: coarse + fine particulates and
PM2.5: fine particulates p. 726 - paragraph 1 sentence 4 - change “acts” to “act”, i.e., “…turbulent gusts act to spread…”

p725, right column, Table 19-1. Update the Canadian air quality standards based on EC input (see notes from Ainslie).  Also, check if US and EU standards should be updated.

p. 727 - Fig 19.3 - same corrections/suggestions for figure and caption as I made in previous chapter

p. 727 - Eq (19.7) - in previous chapter, you defined isotropic using the words “nearly equal”, but then used equality in the equation, and I recommended either removing “nearly”, or replacing the “=“ with the wavy equals sign to indicate approximate equality. If you replaced the symbols in that equation, I would recommend doing the same here for consistency.

p727, left column, second paragraph, first sentence.   Clarification:  The x-axis points in the downwind direction away from the source.  Namely, the x-axis points in the same direction that the wind vector points.  Example:  For a southwest wind (i.e., a wind FROM 225 degrees), the x-axis will point toward the northeast (i.e., it will point towards 45 degrees). 

p728, right column, last sentence.    Change from "Table 18-1"  to  "Table 19-1" .

p. 729 - under Eq (19.8) - remove “and” after first comma, i.e., “…total number of heights, k is the height index, and the overbar…”

p. 730 - Eq (19.11) - "delta-z is the height interval" - but could we use the Gaussian for horizontal concentrations as well? If so, consider rewording to be less specific to the vertical. This also applies to equation (19.10) and text immediately after. The reference to “depth” above equation (19.12) is okay, because it is provided as an example.

p. 731 - higher math box paragraph 2 line 1 - remove comma between “conservative” and “passive"

p. 731 - higher math box paragraph 2 - “…if greater tracer flux F_c enters the volume than leaves.” (replace “a” with “the” as indicated)

p. 731 - higher math box under eq (a) - "…then the turbulent flux of tracer…” (add missing bolded word)

p. 731 - higher math box above eq (c) - “…and assume constant K, to obtain the 1-D diffusion equation:” (suggest rewording like this - the way it is written suggests that “constant K” gives the 1-D diffusion equation)

p. 731 - in ‘Passive Conservative’ section, paragraph 2 sentence 2 - the text “but otherwise they might not be lost” is confusing - do you mean that if they don’t absorb sunlight they are lost? Could you reword this as “Dark soot particles can absorb sunlight to heat the air. Thus, they are active because they alter turbulence by adding buoyancy. This buoyancy can prevent the soot particles from settling and being lost from the air. Under these conditions, soot can be considered a conservative tracer.”

p. 731 - in ‘Passive Conservative’ section, paragraph 2 sentence 2 - note above that I changed “adsorb” to “absorb” (check definitions)

p. 732 - above eq (19.14) - change “small times” to “small delta-t”

p732, right column, at end of paragraph containing eq (19.15): Define Taylor's hypothesis, where t = x/M.   [Motivation: readers might not see the definition of Taylor's hypothesis in the Higher Math box on the previous page, because those boxes might not be read by most readers.]

p. 733 - end of paragraph 1 - remove comma from “windy overcast days or nights.”

p734, right column, line before eq. (19.20):   Change "3-D" to "2-D", because the Gaussian curve applies to a 2-D cross section through the smoke plume at some downwind distance x. 

p. 734 - paragraph 1 sentence 2 - “modeled” should be followed by an adverb, not an adjective - replace “analogous” with “analogously” or reword as “modelled in a way analogous to molecular diffusion.”

p. 734 - 3 lines below eq (19.20) - “in the crosswind and vertical directions,…” (add bolded word)

p. 734 - 5-7 lines below eq (19.20) - you use “above ground” and “above the ground” - pick one, for consistency

p. 734 - second to last paragraph, sentence 2 - “Next, plume spread (sigma_y and sigma_z) is found from…” (add parentheses around sigmas)

p. 734 - second to last paragraph, sentence 3 - “…are found from equations in the previous sub-section” (add bolded text)

p. 735 - Fig 19.6 caption - hyphenate “Crosswind-integrated”

p. 735 - paragraph 1 last sentence - replace “causes” with “cause”

p. 735 - paragraph 3 sentence 2 - is there an equation reference for the Deardorff velocity w*? (looks like eq 19.22 on next page)

p. 735 - paragraph 3 sentence 3 - remove comma in “height and downwind receptor distance”

p. 735 - paragraph 5 last sentence - what are these scaling variables? Are they the ones at bottom of right column?

p. 735 - this whole discussion is very abstract - could you add a sample application to help with understanding and putting the pieces together?

p. 735 - second variable cy in right column - need spaces around “=“ for consistency, replace hyphen in “long-thin” with comma

p. 735 - second to last variable Fh in right column - remove period from end

p. 735-736 - recommend putting these variables/equations into a box or table that can be referenced in the text on p. 735

p. 736 - many equation numbers in left column are very cramped

p. 736 - first equation w* - remove period

p. 736 - equations under ‘Dimensionless Scales’ heading - hanging indent is inconsistent

p. 736 - paragraph 2 of right column - hyphenate “crosswind-integrated” in section heading and first sentence

p. 736 - first full sentence under eq (19.34) - “…between the ground and the top of the mixed layer.” (replace “to” and “and” as indicated)

p. 736 - last line in right column - hyphenate “crosswind-integrated”

p. 737 - paragraph below eq (19.38), sentence 1 - hyphenate “crosswind-integrated”

p. 737 - ‘Review’ section sentence 2 - “…pollutants at ground level can become…” (suggest adding bolded word)

p. 737 - ‘Review’ paragraph 2 - sentences 1 and 2 refer to measurements, whereas last sentence seems to be talking about models that might be used in designing to meet aq standards - clarify

p. 737 - Fig 19.8 - title “(at right)” - what does this mean?

p. 737 - Fig 19.8 caption - line 3 - hyphenate “crosswind-integrated”

p. 738 - line 1 - “overcast skies and strong winds” (add bolded word)

p. 738 - paragraph 2 sentence 1 - would it be correct to say “…appropriate characteristics of turbulence and dispersion”? Otherwise “turbulence and dispersion characteristics of ___”?


20. Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP)



p. 745 - Fig 20.1 caption sentence 1 - suggest changing “based on initial conditions observed at 12 UTC” with “based on initial conditions valid at 12 UTC”, since observation is a gross over-simplification of the data-assimilation process

p. 746 - Info box paragraph 4 sentence 2 - replace text “sigma dot” with symbol

p. 747 - paragraph 1 - suggest separating list entries by semicolons to improve readability (or even use a bulleted list)

p. 747 - paragraph 1 last sentence - suggest replacing “those equations” with “equations 20.1 through 20.7"

p. p747 - info box paragraph 1 sentence 3 - suggest rewording for clarity as “…add the following terms (20.1b-20.3b) to the right side of the horizontal momentum equations (20.1-20.3, respectively).”

p. 748 - info box paragraph 2 sentence 1 - replace “on to” with “onto”

p. 748 - info box - right under eq (F20.2), insert “where” before “Ro”

p. 748 - info box Fig 20.Cb - “prime meridian” is misspelled

p. 749 - paragraph 1 sentence 1 - you say that “no one has yet succeeded in solving the full governing equations analytically” - are they not impossible to solve? Or do you mean to suggest that perhaps a new branch of mathematics could potentially come up with a solution?

p. 749 - last paragraph sentence 1 - suggest separating list entries with semicolons for readability

p. 750 - separate numbered entries in ‘physics’ paragraph (about halfway down page) with semicolons to be consistent with ‘numerics’ paragraph above

p. 750 Fig 20.3 caption sentence 2 - the text “10s m” looks like “10 seconds times metres” (same for “10s km” in same sentence) - suggest rewriting as “10s of metres” and “10s of kilometres/kms”

p. 750 Fig 20.3 caption (c) sentence 3 - missing units in “ the 2.5 to 2.7 band…”

p. 751 - Table 20-1 row 6 (ABL) - split bullets into 2 lines if possible (you might be able to gain some space by rewording bullet 1 of the ‘Radiation’ entry)

p. 751 - last paragraph last sentence - suggest rewording as “Different models will always give slightly different forecasts, due to the nonlinear chaotic nature of the atmosphere (discussed later in this chapter)”, or just replace “usually” with “will always”

p. 752 - info box - title refers to Moore’s Law and Forecast Skill - while skill is shown in the figure, it is not discussed at all in the text. Add a sentence or two describing how/why increased computing power has led to increased skill

p. 752 - Fig 20.4 caption - “(a) Discrete nested meshes…” (suggest adding bolded word)

p. 752 - paragraph 2 sentence 3 - “More closely spaced grid points” could be interpreted as “more grid points that are closely spaced” OR “grid points that are more closely spaced” - suggest rewording for clarity

p. 752 - paragraph 4 last sentence - add “, and is discussed later in this chapter.”

p. 752 - ‘Nested’ section sentence 1 - “Alternatives” is not the right word - suggest rewording as “Modelling strategies have been devised to work around the domain-size vs. resolution trade-off.” (also note added hyphen in “trade-off”)

p. 752 - ‘Nested’ section sentence 2 - suggest rewording for better flow as “One such strategy involves the use of a fast-running coarse grid over a large domain to span large-scale weather systems, with a smaller-domain finer-mesh grid nested inside (Fig 20.4a).” (also note removed hyphen from “coarse grid”

p. 752 - ‘Nested’ section paragraph 1 sentence 4 - why 1/3 and 1/5? Why is the denominator odd? Why not 1/2 and 1/4?

p. 752 - last sentence - replace “are” with “is”, i.e., “…but is more complicated to implement.”

p. 753 - ‘Staggered’ section sentence 1- replace “cell-average” with “cell-averaged”

p. 753 - Fig 20.6 - consider using a different symbol for the vertical wind component on the C/D grids (“xw” in the legend looks weird)

p. 753 - Fig 20.6B - there is a very subtle greyed ‘X’ symbol along the lower right edge of the grid box

p. 753 - Fig 20.6E grid - no w? In what way is the B grid rotated to get this grid? What is the dashed box?

p. 754 - Fig 20.7 caption sentence 2 - “each variable in the shaded cell has indices i=3,j=2” - but what about variables that are on the edges of the shaded cell? Do the top and right sides belong to the cell, or the bottom and left? Is the left edge of the grid i=0 and the bottom j=0?

p. 755 - above equation (20.11) - remove hyphen from “even better”

p. 755 - first full sentence under eq (20.11) - rewrite in passive voice, e.g. “Similar equations can be formulated for gradients of other variables…”

p. 755 - Higher Math box sentence 2 - “…to approximate the derivative…” (add missing bolded word)

p. 755 - Higher Math box under eq (20.BA3) - rewrite in passive voice, e.g., “For practical reasons, the series is truncated to a finite number of terms.”

p. 755 - Higher Math box above eq (20.BA6) - remove hyphen from “even better”, and remove 2 commas, i.e., “For an even better 4th-order centered difference, use:”

p. 756 - Fig 20.9 caption sentence 2 - replace “as contributes” with “which contributes”

p. 756 - second sentence below eq (20.13) - would it be more accurate to say that Fig 20.9 shows the stencil for eq. (20.12), not eq (20.13)? Maybe you could say “Fig. 20.9 shows the stencil for eq. (20.13) with (i,j)=(3,2), which is equivalent to eq. (20.12).”

p. 757 - paragraph 3 sentence 3 - it is not clear from Fig. 20.10 that the leapfrog method uses the present step at all - I suggest referring readers to equation (20.16) at this point, or moving paragraph 3 sentence 3 to below eq. (20.16)

p. 757 - Fig 20.10 caption - replace “time line” with “timeline”

p. 757 - paragraph 4 sentence 1 - same replacement

p. 757 - Info box first line after first equation - replace “A =“ with “A is”

p. 757 - Info box paragraph 3 sentence 1 - suggest rewording as “The leapfrog method was described in the text, and is….”

p. 759 - info box sentence 1 - add missing word “and” before “Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz”

p. 759 - ‘Numerical Errors’ section paragraph 1 sentence 3 - add missing word “and” before “numerical or physical”

p. 759 - last paragraph sentence 1 - reword, i.e., “...can accumulate and cause unexpected outcomes…"

p. 761 - Info box 2 - what change needs to be made to this scenario for the semi-Lagrangian approach to be stable? Smaller s so that the trace is more spread out? What are the height and depth of the cones? e.g., a fatter cone could cause more problems than a skinny one

p. 763 - ‘Balanced Mass’ section sentence 1 - reword as “Over the past few decades, it has been learned through experience that numerical models give bad forecasts if they are initialized from raw observed data.”

p. 763 - Info box, first sentence under Fig 20.F caption - remove hyphen from first “speed up”, and replace “speedup scalar advection” with “speed up scalar advection” (“speed up” is a verb, “speedup” and “speed-up” are nouns)

p. 763 - last sentence into p. 764 - reword e.g., “…where, for example, theoretical winds such as the geostrophic wind are calculated via atmospheric dynamics from observed temperature and pressure fields.”

p. 765 - last sentence before ‘Data Assimilation’ section - reword, e.g., “Hence, data assimilation methods which attempt to reduce startup imbalances, are an important part of NWP. These methods are described next.”

p. 765 - last sentence of last full paragraph - remove hyphen from “pressure gradients”

p. 765 - last full sentence - “…optimum interpolation and variational ___”? Missing word here - add “analysis” or “data assimilation”

p. 766 - equation 20.21 - explanation of cost here isn’t really clear, but under equation 20.22 on next page, it is (i.e., the concept of iterating the initial conditions until the cost function is minimized in variational DA makes sense, but in p. 766 it seems out of place)

p. 766 - Table 20-2 - under Temperature and Humidity headings, what is ‘ASOS’?

p. 766 - Table 20-2 - second line in Humidity box, add colon before “RH (%)” for consistency

p. 766 - last paragraph - is OI not perfect (sentence 2) because it is local (sentence 1)? If so, consider beginning sentence 2 with “Because of this limitation, …”

p. 767 - paragraph 3 last sentence - replace colon with comma

p. 767 - paragraph 4 sentence 2 - a bit awkward - consider rewording as “…and all observations made worldwide at the analysis time.” (i.e., switch order of “worldwide” and “made”)

p. 768 - ‘Case Study’ section sentence 1 - replace “Figures 20.15” with “Figures 20.15 (a-e)” (because only Fig 20.15a is shown on this page, it is at first not clear why you use the plural ‘Figures’)

p. 768 - Fig 20.15a caption - remove first hyphen from “mean sea-level pressure”

p. 770 - paragraph 2 last sentence - replace “larger scales” with “larger-scale features”

p. 770 - Info box 1 paragraph 3 - add another hyphen to “least-squared-error”

p. 770 - ‘Refinement’ section sentence 1 - change semicolons to commas and remove colon (list is short enough that these are not necessary)

p. 771 - paragraph 1 sentences 1 and 2 - hyphenate “best-fit”

p. 771 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - “The PPM produces best predictand values only when the model produces perfect predictor forecasts, which is rare.” - so it does well when the forecast is already perfect and no correction is needed? This probably needs to be reworded for clarity.

p. 772 - paragraph 1 - remove first hyphen from “mean sea-level pressure”

p. 772 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - add “For example, “, to start of sentence, and specify where local NWS gets numerical guidance from, i.e., “For example, local forecast offices of National Weather Services can tailor the numerical guidance provided by the service’s modeling center to produce local forecasts…”

p. 772 paragraph 3 sentence 1 - begin with “Other organizations such as”

p. 772 - Info box 2 paragraph 4 - remove hyphen from “wind energy”

p772, right column, section on Weather Maps and Other Graphics, second paragraph.   Add the additional display program WINGRIDDS (from

p. 773 - Info box paragraph 1 - if I remember correctly, he didn’t enter slightly different initial data - he restarted from a mid-point of his model run to save time, and used intermediate values output by the model to restart, and because the computer output truncated some decimal places, the initial conditions for the restarted run differed very slightly from the model’s more precise intermediate conditions (not a big deal if this doesn’t get changed, but it’s not completely accurate from what I remember)

p. 773 - Info box paragraph 3 sentence 2 - rewrite as “However, between 1975 and 1980, researchers became increasingly aware of his work.” (note changed bolded words)

p. 774 - remove paragraph break between 3rd-to-last and 2nd-to-last paragraphs or just move it so that “Hence, they are called strange attractors” is part of the paragraph above, and a new paragraph begins after it.

p. 776 - sentence 3 - replace “, which” with “that”

p. 776 - paragraph 3 sentence 2 - remove hyphen from “grid resolution”

p. 776 - last paragraph sentence 2 - maybe hyphenate “no-freeze”?

p. 777 - calibration is not a way of producing a probabilistic forecast from an ensemble - it is a way of improving a probabilistic forecast

p. 777 - paragraph 2 - you never define what “calibrated” means

p. 777 - paragraph 4 sentence 1 - put comma after “Often” and add “or exceeded” to end

p. 777 - Fig 20.20 “raw” and “calibrated” not really described anywhere

p. 777 - Fig 20.20 caption sentence 1 - put comma between Tmin and degC in parentheses

p. 777 - Fig 20.20 caption sentence 4 - replace “are” with “span”, i.e., “The dashed lines span +/- 49% around the median…”

p. 777 - right column paragraph 1 - suggest removing last sentence

p. 777 - right paragraph 3 last sentence - reword as “…must beat climatology in successfully forecasting which days…”

p. 778 - sentence above last paragraph on left - replace “analogous” with adverb “analogously”

p. 778 - maybe mention that RMSE is sensitive to large errors

p. 778 - Fig. 20.21 - suggest adding data points for min/max (summer/winter) - at first I thought max was the top line and min was the bottom line, rather than the oscillations of these lines

p. 778 - Fig 20.21 caption - move period to after text in parentheses

p. 779 - end f paragraph under eq (20.32) - replace “for no common variation” with “for no linear relationship” (to me, "no common variation" could be used to describe a negative correlation)

p. 779 - ‘Anomaly Correlation’ section sentence 1 - do you mean “…whether the forecast is varying from climatology (or persistence) in the…”

p. 779 - ‘Anomaly Correlation’ section sentences 2 and 3 - should “correlation” be replaced with “anomaly correlation”? I found this whole section on Anomaly Correlation to be confusing

p. 780 - paragraph above ‘Binary’ section sentence 2 - “…using 60% anomaly correlation…”?

p. 780 Fig 20.22 caption - “NWP forecast skill” - isn’t this anomaly correlation, not skill? See y-axis label.

p. 780 - ‘Binary’ section paragraph 2 sentence 1 - reword as “…for each possible combination of binary forecast and observation outcomes.”

p. 781 - sentence below eq (20.37) - suggest replacing “dumb” with “unskillful”

p. 781 - sentence above eq (20.38) rewrite as “Assuming that you made the same number of “YES” and “NO” forecasts in this “random luck” portion, we can define E as:…”

p. 782 - for eq (20.45) do we still assume same number of yes and no forecasts like for eq (20.38)?

p. 782 - first full sentence after eq (20.46) - remove word “a” i.e., “For perfect forecasts…”

p. 782 - in reliability section, make note that reliability=calibration

p. 783 - at top of left column, why are the end bins only 0.05 wide? Wouldn’t they be 0 < p < 0.1 (centered at 0.05), 0.1 < p < 0.2 (centered at 0.15), etcl?

p. 783 - eq. 20.48 violates the definition of a skill score if BSS_reliability = 0 for a perfect forecast - is this correct?

p. 783 - end of column 1 - is “Day 3” a 3-day forecast, or is it a 1-day forecast made on the third day of the record? Same question for Table 20-4 on next page. I believe these all have to be for the same forecast offset, so the use of the terms “Day 2” and “Day 3” are confusing. Clarify forecast initialization vs valid time.

p. 783 - col 2 first full paragraph, sentence 1 - add “based on predicted weather.” to end of sentence

p. 783 - col 2 end of second full paragraph- add “and” before “100%.”

p. 785 - sentence 2 - replace “that the event occurred” with “with which the event occurred”, i.e., “Let o be the climatological (base-rate) frequency (…) with which the event occurred in the past…”

p. 785 - paragraph 2 sentence 1 - base rate is a frequency - reword as “Assume this event will continue to occur with that frequency in the future.”

p. 785 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - replace “If your C <= oL,” with “If C <= oL for your case,”

p. 785 - paragraph under eq (20.55), sentence 2 - I think this is the first time you define calibration (even though it was used earlier - see other comments on p. 776-777)

p. 786 - paragraph 2 last sentence - replace “finite-size” with “finite-sized”, and replace “for a grid point” with “at a grid point”

p. 786 - last full paragraph in left column, sentence 3 - “chaotic nonlinear-dynamic nature” should be replaced with “chaotic, nonlinearly dynamic nature”

p. 786 - right column 1st full sentence - add comma after “Often”, or reword as “Forecast skill is often defined relative to…”

p. 786 - right column sentence 3 - “…NWP is increasingly being used to make…” (add missing bolded word)


21. Natural Climate Processes


p. 794 - paragraph under eq (21.2) sentence 1 - replace nouns “land and water” with adjectives “terrestrial and aquatic”

p. 794 - paragraph under eq (21.3) - check units! 254.8 and 255 degC should be Kelvin

p. 794 - under eq (21.3) what are units of R_o?

p. 794 - last sentence in paragraph under eq (21.3) - the radiation balance causes a negative feedback, or is an example of one?

p. 795 - ‘Greenhouse’ section sentence 1 - remove word “be”

p. 797 - sentence 2 - a bit awkward, consider rewording as “Sensible heat transfer via conduction can also occur between the Earth and the bottom layer of the atmosphere.”

p. 797 - Fig 21.6 caption last line - inconsistent use of “&” and “and” - maybe replace first “&” with a semicolon, and second “&” with “and”

p. 797 - ‘Astronomical’ section sentence 2 - replace “average-daily-insolation” with “daily-averaged insolation” (note second hyphen removed)

p. 797 - ‘Milankovich’ section paragraph 1 sentence 2 - change “due to the inverse square law” to “according to the inverse square law”

p. 797 - last paragraph - what would e=1 look like?

p. 798 eq (21.12) - not clear what i and N are from the first paragraph - make more clear that these come from Table 21-1 and that entries in Table 21-1 are used in equation (21.12) and not calculated by it

p. 802 - under eq (21.17c) - “…angle marked with the prime (h_o’, in Eq. 21.16) must be…” (add missing bolded words)

p. 802 - under eq (21.19) - something can’t have a “position from” something else - suggest replacing “from” with “relative to” or “measured from”, or rewriting as “the angle between the Earth’s position and perihelion”

p. 802 - Info box, under eq (21.19) - same problem

p. 802 - Info box under eq (21.a) - “where lambda is the position of the Earth relative to the moving vernal equinox, and omega is the position of the perihelion as measured from the moving vernal equinox.” (add/replace missing bolded words)

p. 803 - Fig 21.11 caption - either move period before parentheses to after (to include that text in the previous sentence), or capitalised “Based on” to start a new sentence inside the parentheses

p. 803 - paragraph 2 - more sunspots = warmer? why? what is a sunspot?

p. 803 - paragraph 3 sentence 3 - rearrange sentence as “Radioactive carbon-14 dating suggests solar activity as plotted in Fig 21.13 for the past 1000 years.”

p. 803 - Fig 21.13 caption - add hyphen to “Carbon-14”

p. 803 - second to last paragraph, last sentence - rearrange as “There is some concern among scientists that Earth-based factors such as volcanic eruptions that darken the sky and reduce tree growth over many decades may have confounded the proxy analysis of tree rings.”

 p.803- last paragraph, first sentence: replace (3 to 4 Myr ago) by (4.5 Gyr ago).

p. 804 - Fig 21.15 caption - reword first sentence as “Location of the continents about 225 million years ago when they were combined to form the supercontinent Pangea (…)”

p. 804 - paragraph 1 sentence 5 - what modern continents were in Laurasia and Gondwanaland?

p. 804 - paragraph 3 line 1 - make “continent locations” plural for consistency with “ocean depths” and “ocean circulations”

p. 804 - paragraph 3 sentence 2 - reword as “…driven by differences in water density caused by…” (the text “water-density differences” looks weird to me, maybe because the hyphen shouldn’t be there)

p. 805 - Fig 21.17 caption - “Mauna Loa” is misspelled

p. 805 - paragraph 2 line 1 - “...hundreds of millions of tons…” (add missing bolded word)

p. 805 - paragraph 2 line 3 - replace “as can” with “that can”

p. 805 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - hyphenate “longer-term”

p. 808 - above eq (21.33) - move text in parentheses right above equation to just below it

p. 808 - Fug 21.19 caption last line - replace “—“ with “and are”

p. 808 - sentence surrounding eq (21.34) - this seems repetetive - could you get rid of the portion of the sentence portion after the equation altogether?

p. 808 - last sentence (into p. 810) ends with a preposition - suggest adding word “feedback” to end of sentence (but it is probably OK without it)

p. 809 - about half-way down left box there is a floating colon at the start of a line - remove line break so colon reunited with preceding word

p. 809 - Fig 21.20 caption - put the prime inside parentheses

p. 810 - Table 21.4 caption - remove periods from ends of lines 2 and 3, indent line 2

p. 810 - ‘IR’ section sentence 4 - “…IR radiation is proportional to the 4th power…” (add missing bolded word)

p. 811 - last full paragraph sentence 2 - hyphenate “snow-covered”

p. 811 - Fig 21.21 caption - “…Earth’s surface temperature” (add bolded ’s)

p. 811 - Fig 21.21 caption - hyphenate “snow-covered”

p. 812 - paragraph 2 line 2 - remove space between “Earth” and closing parenthesis

p. 812 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - remove hyphen from “surface temperature”

p. 812 - Info box 2 (Climate Sensitivity) paragraph 3 - combine sentences 1 and 2 into “CO2 has not doubled yet, but there have been measurable changes in Co2 and other GHGs over the last few centuries.”

p. 812 - Info box 2 paragraph 3 sentence 3 - change “anthropogenic forcings” to “changes caused by anthropogenic activities”

p. 812 - Info box 2 - would it be possible to indicate how large the listed change in CO2 is in relation to previous/current values? i.e., how close/far from a doubling of CO2 are we?

p. 812 - suggest removing the last sentence or elaborating a bit to tie the gaia hyphthesis into the concept of ‘abrupt’ climate change touched on in previous sentence

p. 813 - Fig 21.22 caption - change “or bare ground” to “and bare ground” (otherwise it sounds like light flowers can co-exist with dark flowers OR bare ground but not both)

p. 813 - paragraph under eq (21.40) - Tr doesn’t appear until next page - suggest moving this paragraph to below eq’s (21.45), as it is out of place here

p. 814 - second to last paragraph, sentence 1 - suggest rewording as “Namely, the daisy coverages at any one time step can be inserted into the right side of the above two equations, and the solution can be stepped forward in time to find the new coverages one time step delta_t later.”

p. 814 - last paragraph, second to last line - change “approach” to “approaches”

p. 815 - ‘GCM’ section paragraph 3 sentence 3 - replace noun “speed-up” with verb “speed up”

p. 816 - last paragraph of ‘GCM’ section sentence 2 - replace “But” with “By”

p. 816 - Table 21-5 - what does OPM stand for? (What is the ‘O’?)

p. 816 - Table 21-5 - row 1 right column - missing closing parenthesis

p. 816 - ‘Present Climate’ sentence 1 - “So far, we have focused…” (add missing bolded word)

p. 817 - paragraph 2 - hyphenation should be “two- or three-letter code” (add space after first, remove second)

p. 817 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - “…are detailed in Table 21-6” (add missing bolded word)

p. 817 - Table 21-6 continuation row 2 - replace “Elseif” with “Else if” (this isn’t computer code)

p. 817 - Table 21-6 continuation row 2 - should 70% be “>= 70%” or “at least 70%” or “70% or more”?

p. 818 - Table 21-7 row 5 - should “Pressure” be “SLP” for consistency? (not clear from explanation of AO either - see comments below)

p. 818 ‘El Nino’ section sentence 1 - rewrite as “El Nino (La Nina)…warmer (cooler)…”

p. 810 - Fig 21.27 caption c - suggest “Grey bands show warm (upper) and cool (lower) phases.” OR “Upper and lower grey bands show warm and cool phases, respectively.”

p. 820 - paragraph 2 sentence 2 - “…are, respectively, the ocean and atmospheric signals…” (add missing bolded text)

p. 820 - paragraph 3 sentence 2 - put “fair wx” in quotes, maybe change to “(“fair wx” in Fig 21.28)”

p. 820 - ‘PDO’ section line 1 - “…a 20- to 30-year…” (add hyphens)

p. 821 - left column sentence 2 - replace “It is” with “They are”

p. 822- 4) paragraph 2 - remind readers that N=10 is number of years

p. 822 - right column paragraph under bullets - combine the two ‘i.e.’s - e.g., “…the first PC (i.e., k=1; the first column in the table below).”

p. 823 - paragraph above Fig 21.e - refer readers back to spreadsheet sample in section 3) on previous page (took me a bit to find where these numbers came from)

p. 823 - 6) - not clear why smaller eigenvector elements indicate strong pattern and large absolute values are weak

p. 823 - Fig 21.g caption needs to be moved down a bit

p. 823 - 7) paragraph 1 sentence 3 - “The result would have perfectly synthesized the original data…” (remove struck-through word and letter as indicated)

p. 824 - ‘AO’ section paragraph 2 sentence 2 - “…the whole Arctic with a pressure anomaly…” (add missing bolded word)

p. 824 - ‘AO’ section paragraph 2 - is the average P anomaly averaged horizontally from SLP measurements, or is it also averaged vertically from mid-troposphere through lower-stratosphere? (related to question about Table 21-7 above)

p. 824 - right column paragraph 1 - is ‘U’ zonal wind, or any horizontal wind? (clarify/define)

p. 824 - right column paragraph 4 sentence 1 - hyphenate “Eastward-propagating” and in sentence 2 “Westward-moving”

p. 824 - ‘Other’ section bullets 3 + 7 - missing periods

p. 824 - ‘Other’ section bullet 4 - replace period after “(IOD)” with comma for consistency

p. 825 - paragraph 1 sentence 1 - reword as “Climate is weather averaged over long periods of time - typically 30 years.”

p. 825 - paragraph 2 last sentence - this is not an external process, but rather a way in which the earth responds to external forcings - add to end of sentence “, thereby changing the way in which the Earth responds to such external forcings.”

p. 825 - paragraph 3 sentence 1 - reword as “Internally, chemicals that normally exist in the atmosphere (water vapor, CO2, etc.) absorb IR radiation…”

p. 825 - last line - “(e.g., daisyworld)” (add bolded text)

p. 825 - Info box paragraph 1 sentence 5 - can you add an example of such a legend to figure below?

p. 825 - info box paragraph 1 sentence 5 - replace “latitude band” with “latitudinal band”

p. 826 - Perspectives box - bullets 4+5 need space before dash

p. 826 - Perspectives box - bullet 6 - put “de novo” in italics


22. Atmospheric Optics


p. 834 - line above eq (22.3) - put colon after “defined as” for consistency with previous equation

p. 834 - Fig 22.2 - move “n_air” label closer to axis line or (preferably) to right side with other labels

p. 836 - eq 22.6 - variables are not defined - suggest adding line below equation like “where theta, alpha and beta are as illustrated in Figure 22.3.”

p. 837 - paragraph 1 - I think this is the first mention of waves or wave fronts - not clear how readers should tie this into the previous discussions on light rays. Maybe in Fig 22.4 you could add (above top wave front) a few squiggly lines (waves) running perpendicular to show that a wave front is the leading edge of a collection of individual rays/waves of light? Alternatively, move this section to page 859 with only other mention of waves in the chapter.

p. 837 - ‘Liquid-Drop’ section line 1 - “raindrop” is one word

p. 838 - first full paragraph, sentence 2 - “…the line from your eye and to the antisolar point) is about 42 degrees (as illustrated in Figure 22.11).” (change “and” to “to” as indicated, and suggest adding bolded text at end)

p. 839 - ‘Primary’ section paragraph 1 last sentence - suggest adding to end of sentence “, having passed through a raindrop closer to the ground. The viewer can only see colours that are directed toward their eyes.”

p. 840 - ‘Secondary’ section paragraph 1 sentence 4 - replace “- -“ with “—“

p. 841 - ‘Other’ section sentence 1 - hyphenate “Larger-diameter”

p. 841 - ‘Other’ section sentence 1 - hyphenate "moderate-sized” - note change of “size” to “sized”

p. 841 - Fig 22.15 caption - “lake or calm ocean” (suggest adding bolded word)

p. 841 - last paragraph sentence 1 - “raindrops” is one word

p. 842 - paragraph 6 line 2 - hyphenate “cross-section”

p. 843 - Fig 22.18 caption - suggest moving “oriented” to before (a) so that it doesn’t need to be repeated 3 times, i.e., “…large oriented (a) ice columns (b & c) plates, and (d) dendrites.”

p. 843 - ‘Sum Pillar’ section paragraph 3 sentence 2 - change “leafs” to “leaves”

p. 843 - bottom of page bullet 1 - end with comma

p. 843 - bottom of page bullet 3 - end with period

p. 843 - bottom of page - start new sentence for the two lines below the bullets, i.e., “These pillars often have…”

p. 843 - Fig 22.19 caption - hyphenate “sun-pillar optics”

p. 844 - paragraph 1 last sentence - replace “1 5 2” with “1, 5, and 2” OR use an alternate notation such as the dogs in Table 22-2 on p. 847, or dashes, e.g., “1-5-2”

p. 844 - paragraph 1 last sentence - same for “4 1 7”

p. 844 - ‘Subsub’ section sentence 2 - same for “7 4 2”

p. 846 - Fig 22.27 caption - add missing bolded word “…for a/the 46 degree halo…”

p. 848 - paragraph 3 line 1 - remove hyphen from “viewing angle”

p. 849 - under eq (22.17) - replace semicolons after two instances of “e.g.” with commas

p. 849 - last paragraph sentence 1 - “does not include reflection of some or all of…” - this is confusing wording, not clear what you mean. Please reword.

p. 850 - paragraph 3 sentence 2 - “8 4” notation - change as per recommendations made above for p. 844

p. 850 - last paragraph sentence 4 - hyphenate “finite-sized” - also note change of “size” to “sized”

p. 851 - paragraph 3 sentences 2 and 3 - remove hyphens from all instances of “upper tangent” and “lower tangent”

p. 851 - paragraph 4 heading - same correction (“Upper Tangent Arc”)

p. 851 - Fig 22.37 caption - same correction

p. 851 - last paragraph sentence 1 - replace “that horizontal plane” with “the horizontal plane”

p. 852 - Fig 22.38 caption sentence 2 - suggest rewording as “Regions of sparse data points (corresponding to fainter illumination) have been removed for clarity.” OR at the very least, change “that were sparser” to “that are more sparse”

p. 852 - end of paragraph 2 - feels like a word is missing here - suggesting ending with “...because of the critical angle limitation/criterion.”, or something like that.

p. 853 - Fig 22.39 - what are the shaded portions of the arcs?

p. 853 - Fig 22.40 caption sentence 2 - change end of sentence “…oriented with a horizontal column axis (out of the page).”

p. 855 - Table 22-3 legend - remove periods from “angles” points for consistency with other items

p. 855 - Table 22-3 - define terms: suncave, sunvex, etc. (most terms listed after “Parry Arcs” need definitions - if you create a glossary, you could refer to it here)

p. 855 - Info box (left) hyphenate “Parry-oriented column” and “Lowitz-oriented plate crystal”

p. 855 - Info box (right) line 4 put “Ic” in parentheses

p. 855 - Info box (right) line 5 - change “a INFO Box” to “an INFO Box”

p. 855 - Info box (right) last sentence - remove “But”

p. 856 - Fig 22.42 caption - dots are not black - either change their colour in the figure or change the caption to “grey-shaded dots”

p. 856 - ‘Polarization’ section sentence 3 - change “...while passing the other oscillations.” to “..while allowing the other oscillations to pass through.”

p. 856 - ‘Polarization’ section last sentence - suggest adding “when viewed through a polarizing filter.” to end of sentence (if that is correct)

p. 857 - paragraph 2 - reword so that bolded term is “blue sky”, e.g., “…than red light, which causes our blue sky.”

p. 857 - ‘Geometric Scattering’ section sentence 1 is awkward - suggest replacing with “For large particles such as cloud droplets, light is reflected according to geometric optics.”

p. 858 - sentence 1 - change “for all size particles.” to “for particles of all sizes.”

p. 858 - sentence 2 - add missing bolded text “…particles smaller than the wavelength of light, and to…”

p. 858 - sentence 3 - reword as “Aerosol particles have an intermediate size, so no…”

p. 858 - paragraph 3 sentence 4 - reword so that bolded term is “blue sky”, e.g., “(making our blue sky)”

p. 858 - last paragraph - define luminary, e.g., “…centered on the luminary (light source).”

p. 859 - suggest moving discussion of Huygens’ Principle from p. 837 to here

p. 859 - sentence 2 - replace “...and that the subsequent position…” with “...and where the subsequent position…”

p. 859 - I was lost for most of the discussion on waves. Suggest adding more illustrations showing light as waves, wave fronts, etc. All previous figures have been light rays. Perhaps a figure with an analogy like ripples in a pond would be helpful?

p. 860 - end of first full paragraph - define ‘subtended’, or use alternate word

p. 860 - ‘Supernumerary’ section sentence 3 - “raindrop” is one word and should not be broken up or hyphenated

p. 860 - ‘Supernumerary’ section paragraph 2 sentence 2 - not clear why flat drops (previous sentence) would cause this phenomenon

p. 861 - above eq 22.27, make reference to hydrostatic equation (what chapter, equation number)

p. 862 - last paragraph - why is there an upside-down image in Figure 22.43b? Do superior mirages appear higher than they area and also upside-down? (Previous paragraph).

p. 863 - ‘Review’ paragraph 3 sentence 1 - “Raindrop" is one word (note this also appears on p. 866 in E14)

p. 863 - ‘Review’ paragraph 3 sentence 4 - add/change bolded text “Scattering by air molecules causes blue sky and red sunsets.”

p. 863 - paragraph 4 sentence 3 - suggest adding bolded word in “…weave together to make the cyclones,…”

p. 863 - paragraph 4 sentence 4 - are you suggesting that readers are now qualified to make informed policy decisions? That seems like a dangerous stretch…those kinds of decisions should also be guided by the latest research (as discussed in next sentence)



Appendix AScientific Tools .


p. 870 - sentence 2 - replace “ ‘m, k, s’ “ with " ‘m’, ‘k’, and ’s’ “ with or without the single quotes

p .870 - info box line 3 - replace “have called” with “have referred to”

p. 870 - info box - did IEEE adopt the short scale or long scale designations?

p. 871 - sentence 1 - rewrite as passive, e.g. “Ratios of equivalent values can be created to enable easy unit conversion.”

p. 871 - last paragraph sentence 2 - insert space between “in” and “Hg”

p. 871 - last paragraph sentence 3 - add another sentence after this one - “Thus, these temperature conversions contain additive components in addition to multiplication.”

p871 - eq. A.3.  Change m/s to m s^-1

p. 872 - above second to last paragraph - suggest adding to sentence “...(while delta_T/delta_x would denote a horizontal temperature gradient.)”

p. 872 - second to last paragraph sentence 1 - replace “who might not have had calculus.” with “who might not be familiar with calculus.”

p. 872 - last sentence - “These “HIGHER MATH” boxes are surrounded by a thick line…” - it is not a double line, but you could maybe call it a double-thickness line

p. 873 - paragraph 1 last sentence - if it is invariant with height, then it is not a function of z - suggest removing this sentence

p. 873 - above A5 - capitalize “Kelvins”

p873 - Linear section, 3rd paragraph.  Make "slope" and "intercept" into key words.

p873 - last line, add "(Fig. A.2)".

p. 874 - second to last paragraph, last sentence - replace “linear-linear” with just “linear”

p. 874 - last paragraph - replace both instances of “decades” with “orders of magnitude”

p874 - Power section, third paragraph.  Change sentence to say:   See "Apply" Exercise "A1" in the Radiation Chapter. 

p. 875 - ‘Random Error’ paragraph 1 sentence 3 - insert missing bolded word “namely, they are more precise.”

p. 876 - ‘Propagation’ section paragraph 1 sentence 2 - either end sentence with a question mark, or rewrite as “That is, it tells us how to estimate sigma_d given sigma_a and sigma_b.”

p. 876 - ‘Higher Math’ box sentence 2 - replace colon with comma

p. 876 - ‘Higher Math’ box - 4 lines below eq. A.a - replace “the r_AB = 0” with “then r_AB = 0”

p. 876 - ‘Higher Math’ box - 4 lines below eq. A.a - “and similarly for the other correlation coefficients.” is awkward - suggest “(the other correlation coefficients also exhibit this behaviour.)”

p867 - line after eq. (A.14).  "where Dbar is the average of D (Dbar = c Abar Bbar, or Dbar = c Abar/Bbar).

p. 878 sentence 3 - rearrange as “An organized approach to problem solving that includes error propagation is recommended.”


Appendix B: Geophysical Constants & Conversion Factors


- For all numbers with more than 3 digits after the decimal point - the spaces between sets of 3 digits should be smaller - in many cases, the larger spaces impact readability

- For all units with combined SI units (e.g., J K^-1) - you have inconsistent spacing between {first unit} and {dot}{second unit} - I don’t think there should be a space, as the dot is the separator

under ‘Universal Constants’
- c_o - remove decimal point, suggest using scientific notation for this large number

under ‘Earth Characteristics’
- g - remove period between two sets of parentheses
- |g| - put space between H (m) (otherwise looks like H is function of some variable m)

under ‘Air and Water Characteristics’
- a - add missing bolded word “…per unit latent heat flux”
- for C_pd and C_pv, which have multiple possible values, have second, third, etc. lines begin with “=“ as you do for rho_liq in right column
- Ri_c - add “(dimensionless)” or units
- rho_sea-water (column 2) - remove command form after “density of sea water”
- sigma - add missing bolded word “of pure water at 0 degC”



. Add the following:

p881.  aeolian tones, 560

p897.  howling sounds (aeolian sounds), 560

p912.  saltation, 562

p912, under sand, add sub-item: saltation, 562.

p913, singing wires, 560

p913, under sound, add sub-item: howling in storms, 560

p915, under storm, under sand, add: sounds, 560

p923, whistling through trees and wires, 560

p924, under wind, add: noise, 560

p924, under wind, add: sounds, 560

p924, under wind, add: whistling wires (aeolian noise), 560

p924, wires, sounds from (aeolian noise), 560

Many different pages:  point to p414 for bent-back front, sting jet, Shapiro-Keyser cyclone model, Norwegian cyclone model.



I thank the following people who contributed to the Errata:

Dr. Dominique Bourdin (University of British Columbia [UBC] )
Mr. Pedro Odon (UBC)
Dr. Anders Persson (ECMWF / retired)
Mr. Ben Weinstein (British Columbia Ministry of Environment)
Prof. Chris Holmes (Florida State U.)
Prof. Phil Austin (UBC)
Dr. Rosie Howard (UBC)
Arif Zaman
and many UBC students in my ATSC 201 "Meteorology of Storms" course.
Copyright © 2015, 2016, 2017 by Roland Stull