Errata & Enhancements to PrMet-version 1.02b

Stull: "Practical Meteorology: An Algebra-based Survey of Atmospheric Science",
version 1.02b published 2017.
As you discover errors or have suggestions for improvement to the book version listed above, please email the details to me:  rstull [at} eoas (Dot] ubc {doT) ca .  Be sure to locate them with chapter, page, column (right or left), paragraph, and line number, so that other readers and I can find it.  Thanks. 
Note: I have not checked these suggestions/corrections yet to see if they are correct or relevant - - some might not be incorporated into the next version of the book.

(captured through 25 Nov 2020)

Chapter Titles

0. Front and Back Covers, Title Page, Contents Pages, Preface


Contents, page III. left column only, add an additional space before and after the bullet for Chapter 2.

Back cover, near UBC logo at bottom of page: change "eos" to "eoas" in the URL.  The resulting URL should be: 
(However, the old URL still works, and points to the new URL.)


Perhaps for some of the exercises at the end of each chapter, check for missing question marks "?".  [thanks to Natalie Bojarsky]

1. Atmospheric Basics


p4, right column, 4th line from the top. Add "as".  Sentence should be: "...can approximate the earth as a sphere..." [thanks to Richie Zhang]

p4, right col, section 1.3.2, first parag.  change “black circle”  to “black dot”, and change “white circle” to “white dot with red outline”.

p9, left column, Sample Application, Given and Find components.  Need to line up the (b) items better.  [thanks to Olivier Hacking]

p12, Table 1-5.  Caption: state that it is the “US standard atmosphere".

p13, left col, section on Layers.  For the Tropopause, Stratopause, etc, in the sentence before that table, the sentence should mention 4 spheres, not 3.

p17, right column, top solved example, line 2.  Italicize the variables P and T.


2. Solar & Infrared Radiation


p34, right column, section 2.2, line 5.  Remove the comma after "heat flux".  [thanks to Quentin Michalchuk]

p44, left column, Fig. 2.13.  Change the color of the F* curve to be yellow with black outlines, to match the color of the F* curve in Fig. 3.10.


3. Thermodynamics


p54, right column, section, first line.  Add the words "per unit mass".after "energy".  The corrected sentence should be: "Define the transfer of thermal energy per unit mass as ∆q."

p58, left column, last paragraph, line 2.  Change "associated"  to  "associate" . [thanks to Miles Epstein and Abhinab Kadel]

p68 , left column, Fig. 3.7 (a) and (c).  The bottom axis should be potential temperature for both graphs.   [thanks to Marcelo Romero de Moraes at the Federal Univ. of Pampa, Brazil]

p75, left column, second line after eq (3.61). Change "waver-vapor fluxes."  to  "water-vapor fluxes."  [thanks to Rachel Hettinga]


4. Water Vapor


p92, left column, Fig. 4.3 caption.  Change "grey" to "shaded". 

p94-95, section 4.2.1.  Add more info about the wet-bulb temperature:  "Equations similar to (4.17) can be written as  e = es(Tw) - A*P*(T-Tw)     eq. (4.17b), where P = total atmospheric pressures, es(Tw) is the saturation vapor pressure at the wet-bulb temperature, and A = 6.46x10^-4 degC^-1 is a psychrometric coefficient.  From the above eq., the relative humidity is RH = e/es(T) .   [J.R. Simes-Moreira, 1999, Meas. Sci. Technol., 10, 302-311.]

p97-98, section 4.3.2.  Need to re-write and clarify this section.  This includes changing eq. (4.31a) to change rs to r, and mention that below cloud base that the air can be unsaturated even though liquid or ice precipitation is falling through it.  Also, change the description next to eq. (4.32b) to indicate "not cloudy and no precipitation falling through it".  Also, need to change eq. (4.31c) to change r to rs, which would be correct for cloudy or foggy air, with or without precipitation falling through it.  [thanks to Emma Endo, Sam Kao, Siwen Peng]

p95, left column, eq. (4.19).  Replace with a polynomial eq.  (tbd)

p101, left column, first line after eq (4.36), change "Rv/L"  to  "Rv/Lv". [thanks to Miles Epstein]

p101, right column, 7 lines before eq. (4.37a), change Gamma_s to Gamma_d. 

p107, left column, section 4.5, first paragraph, 3rd from last line.  Change "molecular conduction" to " molecular diffusion".  [thanks to Leonora King  at Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada] 


5. Atmospheric Stability


many pages.  For all the small skew-T figures, change the bottom axis label to be "T or Td (°C)".

p125, left column, after eq. (5.1b), add phrase: "where Po = 100 kPa."

p125, left column, last 3 rows (of numbers).  After the row with pressures, insert a new row with the dimensionless Y values.  Namely:  " Y    =    0 ,   0.223 ,   0.511 ,   0.916 ,   1.609 " .

p125, right column Sample Application, in the graph near the bottom, remove the words "theta - z".

p129, left column, first paragraph.  Change to word-wrapping to reduce the paragraph by one line.  This will allow the whole column of words to fit better above Fig. 5.8.

p130, right column, section, line 3.  Change "says"  to  "stays" .  [thanks to Clinton Macadam]

p132, right column, first full paragraph, first line.  Add a comma after "During daytime, " . [thanks to Jennifer Dong]

p137, left column, paragraph 1, last sentence.  Change from "...two elastic bands..." to "... two springs ..." .

p144, left column, Fig. 5.20 caption, first sentence.  Change from ", but now the cyan ..."  to  ", where the cyan ..." .


6. Clouds


p162, Fig 6.4.  Add label inside the figure that says "Emagram".

p164, Fig 6.6.  Add label inside the figure that says "Emagram".

p168, right column, 2nd paragraph, line 2.  Change "specie"  to  "species" . [thanks to Quentin Michalchuk]

p169, right column.  Move "flumen" and its associated description from Table 6-5 to table 6-6.  The reason is that WMO now considers it to be an Accessory Cloud.  For more info, see the WMO cloud atlas online:  [thanks to Harold Chan]

p183, right column, exercise S5a, line 3:  increase the space between each word.


7. Precipitation Processes


p206, left column, Fig. 7.21 caption.  Add an explanation of the different symbols.  (Get this info from Fig. 14.7 caption.)

p208.  eq. (7.35).  Change the exponent from "p" to "c".

p210, left column, Fig. 7.26 caption.  Change the caption to describe the colors in the figure, instead of greyshades.  Namely: "... evaporation (light green with dotted dark green outline), and precipitation (medium blue with solid dark blue outline)."  Also,  change the last sentence into two sentences:  "These data are courtesy of NASA GSFC.  An alternative estimate of precipitation distribution (thick red line) is courtesy of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. "


8. Satellites & Radar


p235, right column, INFO box:  In the last paragraph, make the following words boldface key words:  Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), optical transient detector. 

p237, right column, Fig. 8.20 caption.  Change to: "Idealized weighting functions for GOES-15 sounder channels (Ch) 1 - 4 from Fig. 8.9. "

p244, left column, Sample Application.  In the line that says:  "Rc = (6371 km) / [1+(6356.766 km)(–39x10–6 km–1)]" , it should say:  "Rc = (6371 km) / [1+(6371 km)(–39x10–6 km–1)]".  Note the remaining calculations and final answer are still good.

p244, right column, Table 8-7.  Add an additional column that shows the corresponding ke values.


9. Weather Reports & Map Analysis


p284, left column, caption of Fig. 9.21-i.   Change "show" to "shown".  


10. Atmospheric Forces & Winds


Whole chapter: Consider replacing many of the paragraphs in version 1.02b with the more-clearly-written paragraphs from the 2011 "Meteorology for Scientists & Engineers, 3rd Ed." book.

p290, right column, 5th paragraph: Change "shaded surface" to "green-shaded surface" .

p290, left column, Fig. 10.2 caption.  Change "thin dotted"  to  "orange dotted" .

p290, left column, Fig. 10.2c, change the dotted black line to a dotted dark orange line.

p290, left column, Fig. 10.2d, change the dashed blue line to a dashed dark-green line.

p291, left column, line 2, add "each other" after the last word "intersect". 

p294, right column, section 10.3.1, 2nd paragraph, line 2: Change "grey box" to "shaded box". 

p295, Fig. 10.5 caption:  Change "dark arrow" to "thick arrow". 

p295, Fig. 10.5.   Consider re-drawing using straight isobars.

p298, left column, 2 lines before Fig 10.b.  Change "FG" to "FEG".

p300, right column.  Move the paragraph containing eq. (10.21) to be before the paragraph containing eq. (10.22).  [thanks to Quentin Michalchuk]

p303, right column, Info Box.  Change the first paragraph to be: "... wind speed G similar to that sketched in Fig. 10.8, except with a pressure gradient in only the x-direction?"  [thanks to Prof. Chris Holmes, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL]

p303, right column,  INFO box, second paragraph, first line:  add more space between words.  (Do this by moving some of the last words in that box to the next page.)

p317, right column, Fig. 10.26 is missing the top upward-pointing arrow. 


11. General Circulation


p329. top of page.  add "b" to version number.

p331, left column, last paragraph before section 11.2.2., first sentence.  Start with "Near the surface near each pole is a ..."  [thanks to Doris Vertegaal]

p332, left column. Figs. 11.4.  Make the equator a white line, so it shows up better.

p334, right column, section 11.3, second paragraph: change from "grey dashed arrows" to "dashed lines with arrows".

p334, right column, section 11.3, third paragraph:  change from "solid black arrows" to "solid lines with arrows".

p338, right column, line before eq. (11.10): change "Enet" to "Ef net" .

p344, right column, section 11.5.3, paragraph 2, line 1: Change "grey arrows" to "blue arrows".

p344, right column, section 11.5.3, paragraph 3:  At the end of the first sentence, add the phrase: "(white arrow)".

p347, left column, line 4:  Change "P1" to "P1" , where 1 is a subscript.

p360, right column, paragraph 2, line 7:  Change "(11.27)"  to "(11.17)" .

p362, left column, Fig. 1.42.  In the figure (b), change from "∆V/∆X"  to  "∆V/∆x".  Namely, make the "x' lowercase. [thanks to John-Paul Ng]

p362, right column, section 11.9.1, line 3.  In the key word "relative vorticity" I need to make the letter "r" in relative be in boldface. [thanks to Sabrina Hu,  John-Paul Ng , Cleo Seldon , Kristie Tai and Thomas Zhang]

p363, left column, paragraph after eq. (11.22).  Clarification that this rule works in both N. and S. hemispheres.  Namely, counterclockwise rotating air corresponds to positive (+) relative vorticity in both hemispheres. 

p370, left column, first Sample Application, midway down the page, the equation to calculate phase speed c.  The equation should be c = (40 - 23.9) m s-1 = 16.1 m s-1.    Namely use the correct jet stream wind of Uo = 40 m s-1, not 50 m s-1

p382, left column, exercise A19.  is missing part "i".  Need to re-label parts "j" thru "n" to instead be parts "i" thru "m".  [thanks to Chloe Curry and Declan Taylor]


12. Fronts & Airmasses


p389. top of page.  add "b" to version number.

p407, left column, paragraph 3.  Add that the pre-frontal jet is also called an "atmospheric river" if it avects a large amount of water vapor.  (Also see Pineapple Express).


13. Extratropical Cyclones


p425. top of page.  add "b" to version number.

p433, left column, section 13.1.5, paragraph 2.  Add that the pre-frontal jet is also called an "atmospheric river" if it avects a large amount of water vapor.  (Also see Pineapple Express).

p433, right column Fig. 13.8.  In the warm-air (red) arrow, correct the spelling of "ascending".

p437, right column, Info box, 2nd full paragraph, line 3 is missing the word "follow".  Should be "...wind it will follow the ..."

p447, Fig. 13.23d.  Eliminate the extra "small w" words near the bottom of that figure.

p461, Fig. 13.39 Caption.  Remove the word "grey".  Add info:  "Dashed lines in the main figure are isotherms.  Grey arrow in the insert indicates ..."

p470, Fig. 13.52 Caption.  Remove the word "grey".


14. Thunderstorm Fundamentals


many pages: add color to table headers

p484, right column, line 16.  add "the"  to "...from just under the cloud base."  [thanks to Quentin Michalchuk]

p484, right column, line 23.  add "the"  to "...drier air below the anvil base."  [thanks to Quentin Michalchuk]

p485, left column, line 5.  add "an" to "...consists of only an updraft in ...".  [thanks to Quentin Michalchuk]

p494, left column, 3rd paragraph, last line.  Remove the right parenthesis ")" from after Fig. 14.19.  [thanks to Miles Epstein]

p497, left column, 3rd paragraph.  Change the following:
"thin black line" to "thin red line"
"thin black dotted line" to "thin blue dotted line"

p497, left column, 3rd paragraph from end of page, 2nd to last line.  Add the word "to", so it reads "...would cause it to sink back down..." [thanks to Jennifer Dong]

p507, left column, Fig. 14.43.  Insert a dot "•" on that figure in southern Illinois, to correspond to the info given in the Sample Application to the right of that figure.  [thanks to Adin Litman]

p514, right column, section, line 6.  change from "solid grey arrow" to "solid green arrow".  [thanks to Sophia Li]

p514, right column, section, line 7.  change from "white arrow with grey border" to "white arrow with blue border" .  [thanks to Sophia Li]

p515, left column, section, line 6.  Change "grey" to "rainbow-colored".

p515, left column, section, line 8.  Change "black" to "rainbow-colored".

p515, left column, section, line 11.  Change "black" to "rainbow-colored".

p530, top half of the right column.  Change the Convective Outlooks from 3 risk levels to the 5 risk levels used by the Storm Prediction Center effective starting Oct 2014.  1. Marginal.   2. Slight.   3. Enhanced.  4. Moderate.   4. High.  For more info, see .  [thanks to Miles Epstein]


15. Thunderstorm Hazards


many pages: add color to table headers

p545. top of page.  add "b" to version number.

p548, left column, Table 15-1, line for size code 8:  Change "soft ball"  to  "softball".  [thanks to Miles Epstein]

p563, left column, Fig. 15.21.  In the figure, change "elf" to "elve".

p568, right column, top 3 lines.  In first line, change the last comma to a period.  Also, replace the next 2 lines with:
"This forms above an intense, high-impulse CG stroke that generates a spherically expanding electromagnetic pulse (EMP).   ELVE = Emission of Light & Vlf perturbations due to Emp sourses."   (see nice article by Walter Lyons in Weatherwise (March/April 2018) p28-35.

p570, right column, last paragraph, line 2.  Change "Lighting"  to  "Lightning". [thanks to Clinton Macadam]

p571, left column, first full paragraph, 5th line from bottom. Change to "... fear of lightning and thunder (astraphobia)..."

p580, left column, in empty white space.  Add a new Info box:  "Fear of tornadoes and hurricanes is called Lilapsophobia."


16. Tropical Cyclones


add info about ACE (accumulated cyclone energy)

p603. top of page.  add "b" to version number.

p607, right column, Table 16-3, based on the Japanese Meteorological Agency.  For the "typhoon" row: change the km/h speed range to "118-156", and change the knots speed range to "64-84". 

p613. first line where it says “... are often weak and slow moving by the time they reach the subtropics”.   Add the missing "y" to "they".  [thanks to Tatjana Zenker, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada]

p619, right column, HigherMath box, 2nd paragraph, line 3: "a" should have units of  kPa/km2.  Namely, a = 2.5x10^(-8)  kPa/km2.   [thanks to Julia Jeworrek, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada]

p621. Fig 16.28, the year for hurricane Inez should be 1966, not 1996.  .  [thanks to Marjolein Ribberink, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada]


17. Regional Winds


p645. top of page.  add "b" to version number.

p651, INFO box, left column, first full parag., line 3.  Change from "(shaded grey)"  to  "(shaded pink)" .


18. Atmospheric Boundary Layer


p687. top of page.  add "b" to version number.

p712, right column, paragraph 3.  Change "light-grey" to "orange", and change "dark-grey" to "blue".  These refer to the air parcels in Fig. 18.25.


19. Pollutant Dispersion


p725, left column, last paragraph, line 2:  Change Table "18-1" to "19-1". 

p736, right column, clarification of section 19.7.3 for dispersion in a convective mixed layer. 


20. Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP)



21. Natural Climate Processes

Version 1.02c of just this chapter was uploaded to the Practical Meteorology web page on 7 Sep 2018.  It replaced v1.02b (2017).   The main reason for this change was that readers expected and desired Fig 21.8 to be the accurate representation of the orbital and climate signals, not the crude approximation from the Sample Applications.   Similarly, Table 21-1b near the end of the chapter was expected to have all factors for all the terms, not just the first 10 factors.

p798-802.  Need to include all 20+ terms from the Laskar article, instead of just the first 4 or 5 terms.  Otherwise, the equations don't give the right answer for today.   (Laskar, J., Robutel, P., Joutel, F., Gastineau, M., Correia, A.C.M., Levrard, B. : 2004, A long term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth. A&A 428, 261-285 (2004), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20041335). • Note: there is a nice website that calculates the orbital parameters using all the terms in Laskar et al.  See .  [thanks to Harald Pleym, Porsgrunn, Norway.]

CAUTION: The full-book pdf, as well as printed copies produced by authorized publishers, still have the 2017 old version 1.02b.  See v1.02b errata below.


Version 1.02c Errata:


(none yet).




Version 1.02b Errata:

These errata apply to the 2017 full-book pdf, as well as printed copies produced by authorized publishers.

p794, right column, eq. (21.3), change -17.9 to -18.0 .  

p794. left column, Sample Application.  In 3 places, Change Te to -18.0.  [thanks to Marjolein Ribberink, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada]

p795, left column, first full paragraph, line 2.  Change from -18.6 to -18.0 . 

p795, left column, first full paragraph, line 2. Add word "is", so the sentence says "... temperature is colder ..."

p795, left column, eq. (21.4), change last number to -18.0 .

p795, right column, INFO box, last line.  Change the last number to 240.2 W/m^2.

p797, left column, section 21.1.3, second paragraph, line 5.  Change number to 398 W/m^2.

p797, left column, section 21.1.3, second paragraph, last line.  Change first number to 16.3 degC.

p798, left column, Sample Application.  At the end of line 2 of the question, add " using N = 5."

p798, left column, Sample Application.  In the "Check" section, discuss how the solution of e = 0.049 using N=5 differs from the exact solution of e = 0.047 using all 20 terms. 

p798, right column, Table 21-1.  In caption, mention that this table shows only the first 4 or 5 terms in the summation equations for use in the Sample Applications. Also mention that all the terms are in Table 21-1b at the end of the chapter.

p798, right column, section, in both of the last 2 paragraphs in that section, mention that all 20 factors are given in Table 21-1b at the end of the chapter, and that Fig. 21.8 shows the exact solution with all the terms.

p799.  Replace the top 4 graphs in that figure with the exact solutions, as provided the website .   Also, modify the caption to state that it shows the result of using all terms from Table 21-1b near the end of the chapter

p800, left column, Sample Application.  Add at the end of line 2 of the question "using N = 4."  Also, modify the Exposition to discuss how this answer almost agrees with the exact solution of 22.268 deg as found from Fig 21.8 based on all the terms in the series equation.

p800, right column, 2nd sentence after eq. (21.13), mention that Table 21-1 shows the first 4 terms of the series equation, and that all 23 terms on in Table 21-1b near the end of the chapter.

p801, left column, last line before eq. (21.14), change to "coefficients from Table 21-1b, for N = 26."

p801, right column, Sample Application.  In the question, state "for N = 5."

p801, right column, Sample Application.  Change the Check and Exposition to be: "Check: This value is smaller than the exact value of 0.01628 from the curve plotted in Fig. 21.8.   Exposition: The eccentricity at year 2000 (i.e., almost at present) causes medium climatic precession."

p802 left column, Sample Application.  At the end of the question, add "using the small number of N values given in Table 21-1."

p802, right column, last paragraph.  Change first sentence to be: "All the information above was used to solve eq. (21.16) for average daily insolation at latitude 65 degN during the summer solstice for 1 Myr in the past to 1 Myr in the future."

p829, right column, exercise E9(§):  Change to: " Table 21-1 shows only the first N = 4 or 5 terms for Earth’s orbital factors.   Use all the terms in Table 21-1b, on the next page to calculate and accurately reproduce the first 3 graphs in Fig. 21.8."

p830, expand Table 21-1b to include all the terms from the Laskar paper.


22. Atmospheric Optics


p841, left column, last sentence of section 22.2.3.  Add additional sentence at end of that section: "When the setting sun shines through large raindrops under a thunderstorm, zero-order glow can cause brilliant yellow-orange-red colors that seem to light up much of the sky."

p848, Fig 22.30. Fix grey shading in all figures to blend better.



Appendix AScientific Tools .



Appendix B: Geophysical Constants & Conversion Factors


p879, right column.  Change the value for the total solar irradiance (solar constant) to 1361 W/m2, to agree with the IPCC values used in Chapter 2, eq (2.17).  Also change the kinematic flux to 1.11 K m/s. 



Appendix C: Notation


pC881-C888.  This new appendix did not exist in the original PrMet v1.02b.  It was added in July 2018.  Page numbering is temporary.




Add:  atmospheric river, 407, 433, 472, 824.   

Add: astraphobia, p571.

Add: greek symbols, 885-887.


Add: lilapsophobia, p580.


Add: nomenclature, 881-888.

Add: notation, 881-888.


Add:  river, atmospheric, 407, 433, 472, 824.  

Add:  symbols, 885-887.



After making all other index changes, then change the starting page for the index to p889 (which should ripple forward to make appropriate changes to all subsequent pages), to accommodate the new Appendix C that was added in July 2018.


I thank the following people who contributed to earlier versions of the Errata and enhancements:

Dr. Dominique Bourdin (University of British Columbia [UBC] )
Mr. Pedro Odon (UBC)
Dr. Anders Persson (ECMWF / retired)
Mr. Ben Weinstein (British Columbia Ministry of Environment)
Prof. Chris Holmes (Florida State U.)
Prof. Phil Austin (UBC)
Dr. Rosie Howard (UBC)
Arif Zaman
Dr. Beth Ebert & colleagues in Australia
Dr. Maria Frediani & colleagues in Brazil & NCAR
Ms. Alison Deere (UBC)
Ms. Marjolein Ribberink (UBC)
Ms. Julia Jeworrek (UBC)
Mr. Garret Hartung (UBC)
UBC students in my ATSC 201 "Meteorology of Storms" course over many years.
and to the others who were individually acknowledged in the errata.
Copyright © 2020 by Roland Stull