Guinardia striata

Classification
General Close

Centric

(diatoms) Having radial symmetry, i.e., cell is shaped like a coin or a tuna can or a soup can.

Centric
diatom
Description
Shape Curved, cylindrical
Size Length 30 - 300 μm, diameter 6 - 50 μm
Colour Yellow-brown
Connection Close

Spine

In some diatoms, "closed or solid structures projecting from the cell wall;" in dinoflagellates, solid projections that usually taper to a point.

Spine
fitting into depression of adjacent cell
Covering Silica Close

Frustule

In diatoms, the hard and porous silica cell wall (Horner 2002).

frustule
Close

Flagellum

(plural: flagella) A tail-like projection that sticks out from the cell body and enables movement.

Flagella
None
Close

Chloroplast

An organelle in the cell that contains the cell pigments (Horner 2002). This is where photosynthesis occurs. A chloroplast is a specialized chromatophore.

Chloroplast
Numerous, small, oval
Behaviour
Lifestyle Close

Photosynthesis

The chemical process by which light energy, water and carbon dioxide are combined to produce oxygen and organic compounds. Photoautotrophic organisms (plants and algae) use this reaction to produce their own food.

Photosynthetic
. Sexual/asexual.
Close

Bloom

A rapid increase or accumulation of algal populations in an aquatic system. This will likely involve one or a few dominant phytoplankton species. This follows seasonal patterns (i.e., spring, summer or fall bloom) with dominant species being those that are best adapted to the environmental conditions of that time period. Discolouration of the water may be observed because of the algae's pigmentation. Blooms are often green but may be yellow-brown or red depending on the species present.

Bloom
Information not available
Harmful effects When ingested, may negatively impact copepod reproduction
Distribution
Habitat Close

Neritic

Describing shallow, near-shore areas and the organisms that live there. Refers to shallow marine waters ranging from the low tide mark to the continental shelf. Varying amounts of sunlight penetrate the water, allowing photosynthesis by both phytoplankton and bottom-dwelling organisms. Close proximity to land favours high nutrient content and biological activity (Encyclopedia Britannica 2011).

Neritic
Geographic Close

Cosmopolitan

Widely distributed; occurring in many parts in the world.

Cosmopolitan
except in polar regions
Seasonal Summer and autumn
Growth Conditions
Close

Salinity

The dissolved ion content of a body of water. Can be measured in the following units: parts per thousand (PPT or ‰), practical salinity units (PSU), and absolute salinity (g/kg). PPT is measured by weight, denoting the number of parts salt per thousand total parts or a value of 10-3. PSU measures the conductivity of saltwater and compares it in a ratio to a standard KCl solution (because this is a ratio, salinity measured in this way can also be written without units). The newest unit of salinity is absolute salinity, which uses the mass fraction of salt in seawater (g salt per kg seawater) rather than its conductivity (TEOS-20 2010).

Salinity
30 - 38
Temperature 4 - 29 °C

Synonym(s)


Rhizosolenia stolterfothii H. Peragallo 1888 Close

Heterotypic

A difference in type. In naming species, a heterotypic synonym is one that comes into being when a taxon becomes part of a different taxon. Compare to homotypic.

(heterotypic
)
Eucampia striata Stolterfoth 1879 Close

Basionym

The original name for an organism. In botany, the original published nomenclature from which a new binomial nomenclature is derived for a particular group of organisms (Tindall 1999).

(basionym
, Close

Homotypic

Expressing the same fundamental type or structure; may or may not be symmetrical (e.g., the two valves of a diatom, where they are the same shape and appearance, but one is bigger than the other). In naming species, a homotypic synonym is one that comes into being when a taxon gets a new name (without being added to an already existing taxon).

homotypic
)
(Guiry and Guiry 2011)

Classification


Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Chromobiota
Infrakingdom Heterokonta
Phylum Bacillariophyta
Subphylum Coscinodiscophytina
Class Coscinodiscophyceae
Subclass Rhizosoleniophycidae
Order Rhizosoleniales
Family Rhizosoleniaceae
Genus Guinardia
Species G. striata (Stolterfoth) Hasle 1997

(Guiry 2011)

Lifestyle


Photosynthetic. Reproduces sexually and asexually (Guiry 2011).

Description


Cells are cylindrical and curved, usually in helical chains. Close

Valve

In diatoms, the structurally distinct halves of the cell wall (Becker 1996).

Valves
are flat with rounded edges. Cells have a strong spine on the valve Close

Margin

The outline or border that defines the shape of an organism or cell.

margin
, which fits into a depression on the neighbouring cell. Chloroplasts are numerous, small, and oval-shaped. Close

Nucleus

(plural: nuclei) In eukaryotic cells, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's genetic information; the nucleus controls the activities of the cell by controlling gene expression.

Nucleus
is located near the cell wall (Cupp 1943). Cells are yellow-brown in color (Guiry 2011).
Close

Intercalary bands

Girdle bands that are furthest away from the valve (Smithsonian 2011).

Intercalary bands
are collar-like and numerous. Close

Imbrication lines

In dinoflagellates, the overlapping arrangement between adjacent thecal plates (Tomas 1997).

Imbrication lines
are sometimes visible. Cell wall is weakly Close

Siliceous

Describing the character (i.e., white, shimmery) or chemical presence silicon dioxide (SiO2) as a component of phytoplankton cell covering.

siliceous
with no distinct structures (Cupp 1943).

Measurements


Length Close

Pervalvar axis

The axis through the centre point of the two valves of a frustule. This axis is perpendicular to the valve face.

(pervalvar axis
): 30 - 300 μm
Diameter: 6 - 50 μm
(Hasle and Syvertsen 1997, Kraberg et al. 2010)

Similar species


None. G. striata is easily identifiable as a curved and cylindrical cell/chain, with a spine protruding from each end of the cell/chain (Cupp 1943).

Harmful effects


When ingested, may negatively impact copepod reproduction (Wichard et al. 2008).

Habitat


Neritic, sometimes oceanic (Cupp 1943). Common in subsurface waters due to its size (Widdicombe et al. 2002).

Distribution


Geographic:
Cosmopolitan except in polar regions (Hasle and Syvertsen 1997).
Seasonal:
Present mainly in summer and fall in Northern European seas (Kraberg et al. 2010).
Local:
Very widespread and often abundant (Cupp 1943).

Growth conditions


Low silica requirements (0.05 ≤ Si:C ≤ 0.10) (Rousseau 2002, cited in Schapira et al. 2008). G. striata is capable of forming blooms in low silica conditions, such as during early summer (Sournia et al. 1987, Del Amo et al. 1997a, b, Rousseau et al. 2002, all cited in Schapira et al. 2008).
As a larger species, G. striata may be able to undergo higher photosynthetic activity (Il'yash et al. 2004), due to the larger intracellular phosphorus reserve (Shuter 1978).

Environmental Ranges


Depth range (m): 0 - 130
Temperature range (°C): 3.924 - 29.468
Nitrate (μmol L-1): 0.053 - 20.029
Salinity: 30.119 - 38.049
Oxygen (mL L-1): 4.444 - 7.715
Phosphate (μmol L-1): 0.046 - 1.656
Close

Silicic acid

A general term to describe chemical compounds containing silicon, oxygen and hydrogen with a general formula of [SiOx(OH)4-2x]n. Diatoms polymerize silicic acid into biogenic silica to form their frustules (Azam and Chisholm 1976).

Silicate
(μmol L-1): 0.648 - 35.557
(OBIS 2011, cited in EOL 2011)

Bloom characteristics


Information not available.

References


Cupp, E. E. 1943. Marine Plankton Diatoms of the West Coast of North America. University of California Press. Berkeley, California. 238.

Del Amo, Y., Le Pape, O., Tréguer, P., Quéguiner, P., Ménesguen, A. and Aminot, A. 1997a. Impacts of high-nitrate freshwater inputs on macrotidal ecosystems. I. Seasonal evolution of nutrient limitation for the diatom-dominated phytoplankton in the Bay of Brest (France). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 161: 213-224.

Del Amo, Y., Quéguiner, B., Tréguer, P., Breton, H. and Lampert, L. 1997b. Impacts of high-nitrate freshwater inputs on macrotidal ecosystems. II. Specific role of the silicic acid pump in the year-round dominance of diatoms in the Bay of Brest (France). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 161: 225-237.

Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). Guinardia striata (Stolterfoth) G. R. Hasle. http://www.eol.org/pages/907115. Accessed 30 Jul 2011.

Guiry, M. D. 2011. Guinardia striata (Stolterfoth) Hasle, 1997. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=149113. Accessed 30 Jul 2011.

Guiry, M. D. and Guiry, G. M. 2011. Guinardia striata (Stolterfoth) Hasle. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=43912. Accessed 30 Jul 2011.

Hasle, G. R. and Syvertsen, E. E. 1997. Marine diatoms. In: Tomas, C. R. (ed.) Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego. 5-385.

Il'yash, L. V., Matorin, D. N., Kol'tsova, T. I. and Sham, H. H. 2004. Spatial Distribution and Daily Dynamics of Phytoplankton in Nhatrang Bay of the South China Sea. Oceanology. 44(2): 219-229.

Kraberg, A., Baumann, M. and Durselen, C. D. 2010. Coastal Phytoplankton: Photo Guide for Northern European Seas. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, Germany. 204.

Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). Guinardia striata. http://www.iobis.org/mapper/?taxon_id=449120. Accessed 30 Jul 2011.

Rousseau, V., Leynaert, A., Daoud, N. and Lancelot, C. 2002. Diatom succession, silicification and availability in Belgian coastal waters (southern North Sea). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 236: 61-73.

Schapira, M., Vincent, D., Gentilhomme, V. and Seuront, L. 2008. Temporal patterns of phytoplankton assemblages, size spectra and diversity during the wane of a Phaeocystis globosa spring bloom in hydrologically contrasted coastal waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 88(4): 649-662.

Shuter, B. J. 1978. Size dependence of phosphorus and nitrogen subsistence quotas in unicellular microorganisms. Limnology and Oceanography. 23(6): 1248-1255.

Sournia, A., Birrien, J.L., Douvillé, J. L., Klein, B. and Viollier, M. 1987. A daily study of diatom spring bloom at Roscoff (France) in 1985. I. The spring bloom within the annual cycle. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 25: 355-367.

Wichard, T., Poulet, S. A., Boulesteix, A. L., Ledoux, J. B., Lebreton, B., Marchetti, J. and Pohnert, G. 2008. Influence of diatoms on copepod reproduction. II. Uncorrelated effects of diatom-derived α, β, γ, δ-unsaturated aldehydes and polyunsaturated fatty acids on Calanus helgolandicus in the field. Progress in Oceanography. 77(1): 30-44.

Widdicombe, C. E., Archer, S. D., Burkill, P. H. and Widdicombe, S. 2002. Diversity and structure of the microplankton community during a coccolithophore bloom in the stratified northern North Sea. Deep-Sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography. 49(15): 2887-2903.


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