Thalassiosira anguste-lineata

Classification
General Close

Centric

(diatoms) Having radial symmetry, i.e., cell is shaped like a coin or a tuna can or a soup can.

Centric
diatom
Description
Shape Drum-shaped
Size Diameter 14 - 80 μm, height 10 - 40 μm
Colour Yellow-brown
Connection Multiple near-centre organic threads
Covering Silica Close

Frustule

In diatoms, the hard and porous silica cell wall (Horner 2002).

frustule
Close

Flagellum

(plural: flagella) A tail-like projection that sticks out from the cell body and enables movement.

Flagella
None
Close

Chloroplast

An organelle in the cell that contains the cell pigments (Horner 2002). This is where photosynthesis occurs. A chloroplast is a specialized chromatophore.

Chloroplast
Numerous, small, Close

Discoid

Disc-shaped.

discoid
Behaviour
Lifestyle Close

Photosynthesis

The chemical process by which light energy, water and carbon dioxide are combined to produce oxygen and organic compounds. Photoautotrophic organisms (plants and algae) use this reaction to produce their own food.

Photosynthetic
. Sexual/asexual.
Close

Bloom

A rapid increase or accumulation of algal populations in an aquatic system. This will likely involve one or a few dominant phytoplankton species. This follows seasonal patterns (i.e., spring, summer or fall bloom) with dominant species being those that are best adapted to the environmental conditions of that time period. Discolouration of the water may be observed because of the algae's pigmentation. Blooms are often green but may be yellow-brown or red depending on the species present.

Bloom
Information not available
Harmful effects May produce chemicals that can inhibit copepod reproduction
Distribution
Habitat Close

Neritic

Describing shallow, near-shore areas and the organisms that live there. Refers to shallow marine waters ranging from the low tide mark to the continental shelf. Varying amounts of sunlight penetrate the water, allowing photosynthesis by both phytoplankton and bottom-dwelling organisms. Close proximity to land favours high nutrient content and biological activity (Encyclopedia Britannica 2011).

Neritic
Geographic Close

Cosmopolitan

Widely distributed; occurring in many parts in the world.

Cosmopolitan
Seasonal Often contributes to spring blooms in cold to temperate regions
Growth Conditions
Close

Salinity

The dissolved ion content of a body of water. Can be measured in the following units: parts per thousand (PPT or ‰), practical salinity units (PSU), and absolute salinity (g/kg). PPT is measured by weight, denoting the number of parts salt per thousand total parts or a value of 10-3. PSU measures the conductivity of saltwater and compares it in a ratio to a standard KCl solution (because this is a ratio, salinity measured in this way can also be written without units). The newest unit of salinity is absolute salinity, which uses the mass fraction of salt in seawater (g salt per kg seawater) rather than its conductivity (TEOS-20 2010).

Salinity
18 - 36
Temperature -2 - 18 °C

Synonym(s)


Coscinosira polychorda (Gran) Gran 1900 Close

Heterotypic

A difference in type. In naming species, a heterotypic synonym is one that comes into being when a taxon becomes part of a different taxon. Compare to homotypic.

(heterotypic
)
Thalassiosira polychorda (Gran) E. Jorgensen 1899 (heterotypic)
Coscinodiscus polychordus Gran 1897 (heterotypic)
Coscinodiscus anguste-lineatus A. Schmidt 1878 Close

Basionym

The original name for an organism. In botany, the original published nomenclature from which a new binomial nomenclature is derived for a particular group of organisms (Tindall 1999).

(basionym
, Close

Homotypic

Expressing the same fundamental type or structure; may or may not be symmetrical (e.g., the two valves of a diatom, where they are the same shape and appearance, but one is bigger than the other). In naming species, a homotypic synonym is one that comes into being when a taxon gets a new name (without being added to an already existing taxon).

homotypic
)
(Guiry and Guiry 2012)

Classification


Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa
Infrakingdom Heterokonta
Phylum Ochrophyta
Subphylum Khakista
Class Coscinodiscophyceae
Subclass Coscinodiscophycidae
Order Thalassiosiranae
Family Thalassiosirales
Genus Thalassiosira
Species T. anguste-lineata (A. Schmidt) G. Fryxell and Hasle 1977

(Guiry and Guiry 2012)

Lifestyle


Photosynthetic. Reproduces sexually and asexually (Guiry 2012).

Description


Cells are drum-shaped with threads extending from the Close

Margin

The outline or border that defines the shape of an organism or cell.

margins
. Adjacent cells are connected by multiple threads scattered around the Close

Valve

In diatoms, the structurally distinct halves of the cell wall (Becker 1996).

valve
centre. The valve face is flat or weakly convex, with rounded edges (Cupp 1943). Chloroplasts are numerous, small, and discoid (Kraberg et al. 2010). Cells are yellow-brown in colour (Guiry 2012).
In valve view, threads arise from several arcs of Close

Strutted process

(how is this different than marginal process?) In some diatoms, a narrow tube through the frustule that is usually associated with the secretion of chitin. It may appear as a marginal process or as a simple pore in the valve wall (Spaulding et al. 2010).

strutted processes
that form a subcentral ring, with one to nine Close

Process

A natural projection or appendage on an organism.

processes
per arc (Hasle and Syvertsen 1997). A marginal ring of strutted processes with distinct external tubes is present; one Close

Labiate process

In diatoms, a simple slit in the valve wall with two internal lips, one on each side of the slit. They can be useful in identification because they are positioned differently in different species (Horner 2002).

labiate process
is located slightly inside this ring and midway between two strutted processes (Kraberg et al. 2010).

Measurements


Diameter: 14 - 80 μm
Height Close

Pervalvar axis

The axis through the centre point of the two valves of a frustule. This axis is perpendicular to the valve face.

(pervalvar axis
): 10 - 40 μm
Valve Close

Areola(e)

In diatoms, the regularly repeated hexagonal holes on the valve walls (HPP 2003).

areolae
: 8 - 18 in 10 μm
Close

Marginal process

In some diatoms, a long, coarse external tube through the frustule (Tomas 1997).

Marginal processes
: 3 - 6 in 10 μm
(Hasle and Syvertsen 1997, Kraberg et al. 2010)

Similar species


Other Thalassiosira species. T. anguste-lineata is easily distinguished by the multiple threads between adjacent cells.

Harmful effects


May produce polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) that can inhibit copepod reproduction (Wichard et al. 2005). May inhibit egg-hatching of copepods (Leising et al. 2005).

Habitat


Neritic (Cupp 1943), but has also been found in Close

Estuary

The area where a river meets the ocean. Often characterized by high sediments, high nutrient levels, salinity fluctuations and tidal mixing.

estuaries
(Gayoso 1983).

Distribution


Geographic:
Cosmopolitan (Hasle and Syvertsen 1997).
Seasonal:
It can be a dominant contributor to spring blooms in Northern European seas (Kraberg et al. 2010), off of NW Russia (Makarevich and Matishov 2000), in the SW Atlantic (Akselman 1996), and near northern Japan (Maita and Odate 1988). It was also found in large numbers during a winter bloom in an estuary near the SW Atlantic (Gayoso 1983).
Local:
Occasionally present off southern California, but never in large numbers (Cupp 1943).

Growth conditions


Information not available.

Environmental Ranges


Depth range (m): 0 - 200
Temperature range (°C): -1.679 - 18.490
Nitrate (μmol L-1): 0.551 - 28.280
Salinity: 17.940 - 36.128
Oxygen (mL L-1): 5.427 - 9.002
Phosphate (μmol L-1): 0.067 - 2.337
Close

Silicic acid

A general term to describe chemical compounds containing silicon, oxygen and hydrogen with a general formula of [SiOx(OH)4-2x]n. Diatoms polymerize silicic acid into biogenic silica to form their frustules (Azam and Chisholm 1976).

Silicate
(μmol L-1): 1.705 - 59.039
(OBIS 2012, cited in EOL 2012)

Bloom characteristics


Information not available.

References


Akselman, R. 1996. Ecological studies in San Jorge Gulf and adjacent areas (SW Atlantic). Phytoplankton distribution, abundance and seasonal variation in relation to physico-chemical factors and hydrology. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Cupp, E. E. 1943. Marine Plankton Diatoms of the West Coast of North America. University of California Press. Berkeley, California. 238.

Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). 2012. Thalassiosira anguste-lineata. http://eol.org/pages/915774/overview. Accessed 26 Feb 2012.

Gayoso, A. M. 1983. The phytoplankton of Bahia Blanca estuary; internal part: Puerto Cuatreros. Studia Oecologica. 2(2): 73-88.

Guiry, M. D. 2011. Thalassiosira anguste-lineata (A. Schmidt) G. Fryxell and Hasle, 1977. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=148914. Accessed 26 Feb 2011.

Guiry, M. D. and Guiry, G. M. 2012. Thalassiosira anguste-lineata (A. Schmidt) G. Fryxell and Hasle. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=33058. Accessed 26 Feb 2012.

Hasle, G. R. and Syvertsen, E. E. 1997. Marine diatoms. In: Tomas, C. R. (ed.) Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego. 5-385.

Kraberg, A., Baumann, M. and Durselen, C. D. 2010. Coastal Phytoplankton: Photo Guide for Northern European Seas. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, Germany. 204.

Leising, A. W., Pierson, J. J., Halsband-Lenk, C., Horner, R. and Postel, J. 2005. Copepod grazing during spring blooms: Can Pseudocalanus newmani induce trophic cascades? Progress in Oceanography. 67(3-4): 406-421.

Maita, Y. and Odate, T. 1988. Seasonal changes in size-fractionated primary production and nutrient concentrations in the temperate neritic water of Funka Bay, Japan. Journal of the Oceanographical Society of Japan. 44: 268-279.

Makarevich, P. R. and Matishov, D. G. 2000. Spring production cycle of phytoplankton in the Kara Sea. Doklady Biological Sciences. 375: 627-629.

Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). 2012. Thalassiosira anguste-lineata. http://www.iobis.org/mapper/?taxon_id=761182. Accessed 26 Feb 2012.

Wichard, T., Poulet, S. A., Halsband-Lenk, C., Albaina, A., Harris, R., Liu, D. and Pohnert, G. 2005. Survey of the chemical defence potential of diatoms: Screening of fifty one species for α, β, γ, δ-unsaturated aldehydes. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 31(4): 949-958.


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