Diplopsalis lenticula

Classification
General Dinoflagellate
Description
Shape Round (spherical)
Size Length 25 - 50 μm, width 35 - 70 μm
Colour Reddish-brown when fixed in Close

Lugol's iodine solution

A solution of elemental iodine and potassium iodide in water; it was first used in 1829 by French physician Jean Lugol as a disinfectant. Lugol's iodine can be used as fixative to preserve phytoplankton samples for visual analysis at a later time (Leakey et al. 1994).

Lugol's
, normally translucent when live
Connection None (solitary)
Covering Cellulose Close

Theca

(plural: thecae) Cell wall. In dinoflagellates, it is composed of cellulose plates within vesicles (Horner 2002).

theca
Close

Flagellum

(plural: flagella) A tail-like projection that sticks out from the cell body and enables movement.

Flagella
Two
Close

Chloroplast

An organelle in the cell that contains the cell pigments (Horner 2002). This is where photosynthesis occurs. A chloroplast is a specialized chromatophore.

Chloroplast
Absent
Behaviour
Lifestyle Close

Heterotroph/heterotrophic

An organism that cannot convert inorganic carbon into a usable energy source. Instead, it consumes other organisms to obtain organic carbon for growth.

Heterotrophic
Close

Bloom

A rapid increase or accumulation of algal populations in an aquatic system. This will likely involve one or a few dominant phytoplankton species. This follows seasonal patterns (i.e., spring, summer or fall bloom) with dominant species being those that are best adapted to the environmental conditions of that time period. Discolouration of the water may be observed because of the algae's pigmentation. Blooms are often green but may be yellow-brown or red depending on the species present.

Bloom
Occurs frequently in moderate abundance in North Sea
Harmful effects None known
Distribution
Habitat Close

Estuarine

Of or relating to estuaries.

Estuarine
and oceanic
Geographic Close

Cosmopolitan

Widely distributed; occurring in many parts in the world.

Cosmopolitan
in cold temperate to tropical waters
Seasonal Peak abundance in the summer
Growth Conditions
Close

Salinity

The dissolved ion content of a body of water. Can be measured in the following units: parts per thousand (PPT or ‰), practical salinity units (PSU), and absolute salinity (g/kg). PPT is measured by weight, denoting the number of parts salt per thousand total parts or a value of 10-3. PSU measures the conductivity of saltwater and compares it in a ratio to a standard KCl solution (because this is a ratio, salinity measured in this way can also be written without units). The newest unit of salinity is absolute salinity, which uses the mass fraction of salt in seawater (g salt per kg seawater) rather than its conductivity (TEOS-20 2010).

Salinity
24 - 35
Temperature -2 - 24 °C

Synonym(s)


Peridiniopsis lenticula (Bergh) Starmach 1974
Glenodinium lenticula Pouchet 1883
Dissodinium lenticulum (Bergh) Loeblich III 1970
(Kraberg et al. 2010)

Classification


Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Protozoa
Subkingdom Biciliata
Infrakingdom Alveolata
Phylum Myzozoa
Subphylum Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Subclass
Order Peridiniales
Family Perdiniaceae
Genus Diplopsalis
Species D. lenticula (Bergh) 1882

(Guiry and Guiry 2012)

Lifestyle


Diplopsalis lenticula is a heterotrophic dinoflagellate that feeds with a Close

Pallium

(feeding) A mode of feeding used by some heterotrophic dinoflagellates. The dinoflagellate extrudes its cytoplasm, engulfing its food (often a cell or chain of cells). The food is digested outside the dinoflagellate's cell. The dinoflagellate then pulls its cytoplasm and its newly digested meal back inside its theca. This method of feeding allows dinoflagellates to eat food that is bigger than itself.

pallium
(Kraberg et al. 2010). It produces round, brown Close

Cyst

"A thick-walled dormant cell" (Horner 2002).

cysts
(Kraberg et al. 2010).

Description


Cells are round overall and are Close

Apical

(axis, spine) The region of the apex or point. Refers to the most anterior point or region of the cell (HPP 2003).

apically
- Close

Antapical

Referring to the most posterior point of a cell. The opposite of apical.

antapically
compressed (Kraberg et al. 2010). The cell might also look like a sphere that is flattened from pole to pole and has an apical pore (Subrahmanyan 1971). The cell has a large apical projection (cone) and prominent Close

Sulcal list

(left and right) In dinokont dinoflagellates, a well-defined groove on the ventral surface that is supported by ribs.

sulcal lists
(Smithsonian 2012) that produce a visible "hook".

Measurements


Length: 25 - 50 μm
Width: 35 - 70 μm
(Kraberg et al. 2010)

Similar species


None.

Harmful effects


None known.

Habitat


Estuarine and oceanic (Steidinger and Tangen 1997).

Distribution


Geographic:
Cosmopolitan in cold temperate to tropical waters (Steidinger and Tangen 1997).
Seasonal:
Although it is occasionally seen in spring and autumn, its peak abundance may occur in the summer months British Columbia and in the North Sea and adjacent waters (Kraberg et al. 2010).

Growth conditions


Information not available.

Environmental Ranges


Depth range (m): 0 - 175
Temperature range (°C): -1.893 - 23.128
Nitrate (μmol L-1): 0.476 - 12.829
Salinity: 24.378 - 36.252
Oxygen (mL L-1): 4.981 - 9.192
Phosphate (μmol L-1): 0.051 - 1.165
Close

Silicic acid

A general term to describe chemical compounds containing silicon, oxygen and hydrogen with a general formula of [SiOx(OH)4-2x]n. Diatoms polymerize silicic acid into biogenic silica to form their frustules (Azam and Chisholm 1976).

Silicate
(μmol L-1): 1.030 - 35.210
(EOL 2012)

Bloom characteristics


Occurs frequently in moderate abundance in the North Sea and adjacent waters (Kraberg et al. 2010); does not normally produce blooms in British Columbia.

References


Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). 2012. Diplopsalis lenticula (Bergh) 1882. http://eol.org/pages/901352/details. Accessed 3 May 2012.

Guiry, M. D. and Guiry, G. M. 2012. Diplopsalis lenticula (Bergh) 1882. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=60249. Accessed on 3 May 2012.

Kraberg, A., Baumann, M. and Durselen, C. D. 2010. Coastal Phytoplankton Photo Guide for Northern European Seas. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, Germany.203.

Subrahmanyan, R. 1971. The Dinophyceae of the Indian Seas. Marine Biological Association of India. 334.

Smithsonian Environmental Research Centre. 2012. Diplopsalis lenticula (Bergh) 1882. http://www.serc.si.edu/labs/phytoplankton/guide/dinoflagellates/diplop.aspx. Accessed 30 April 2012.

Steidinger, K. A. and Tangen, K. 1997. Dinoflagellates. In: Tomas, C. R. (ed.) Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego. 531.


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