Oxyphysis oxytoxoides

Classification
General Dinoflagellate
Description
Shape Elongated spinning top
Size Length 60 - 68 μm, width 16 - 24 μm
Colour Depends on diet
Connection None (solitary)
Covering Cellulose Close

Theca

(plural: thecae) Cell wall. In dinoflagellates, it is composed of cellulose plates within vesicles (Horner 2002).

theca
Close

Flagellum

(plural: flagella) A tail-like projection that sticks out from the cell body and enables movement.

Flagella
Two unequal
Close

Chloroplast

An organelle in the cell that contains the cell pigments (Horner 2002). This is where photosynthesis occurs. A chloroplast is a specialized chromatophore.

Chloroplast
None
Behaviour
Lifestyle Close

Heterotroph/heterotrophic

An organism that cannot convert inorganic carbon into a usable energy source. Instead, it consumes other organisms to obtain organic carbon for growth.

Heterotrophic
. Asexual Close

Binary fission

A form of asexual reproduction where one cell divides into two identical cells. All prokaryotes and some eukaryotes reproduce in this manner. Compare with mitosis, where the nucleus must also divide, adding an extra step to the process.

(binary fission
).
Close

Bloom

A rapid increase or accumulation of algal populations in an aquatic system. This will likely involve one or a few dominant phytoplankton species. This follows seasonal patterns (i.e., spring, summer or fall bloom) with dominant species being those that are best adapted to the environmental conditions of that time period. Discolouration of the water may be observed because of the algae's pigmentation. Blooms are often green but may be yellow-brown or red depending on the species present.

Bloom
No information available
Harmful effects None known
Distribution
Habitat Coastal and open ocean
Geographic Temperate to subtropical
Seasonal Mid-summer
Growth Conditions
Close

Salinity

The dissolved ion content of a body of water. Can be measured in the following units: parts per thousand (PPT or ‰), practical salinity units (PSU), and absolute salinity (g/kg). PPT is measured by weight, denoting the number of parts salt per thousand total parts or a value of 10-3. PSU measures the conductivity of saltwater and compares it in a ratio to a standard KCl solution (because this is a ratio, salinity measured in this way can also be written without units). The newest unit of salinity is absolute salinity, which uses the mass fraction of salt in seawater (g salt per kg seawater) rather than its conductivity (TEOS-20 2010).

Salinity
34 - 35
Temperature 20 - 23 °C

Synonym(s)


None.

Classification


Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Protozoa
Subkingdom Biciliata
Infrakingdom Alveolata
Phylum Dinoflagellata
Subphylum
Class Dinophyceae
Subclass
Order Dinophysiales
Family Dinophysiaceae
Genus Oxyphysis
Species O. oxytoxoides Kafoid 1926

(Guiry and Guiry 2011)

Lifestyle


O. oxytoxoides is a heterotrophic dinoflagellate that feeds on ciliates and other Close

Protist

A diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms which range from "animal-like" protozoa to "plant-like" algae. This is an older, informal term referring to many simple organisms that do not fit well into the kingdoms of plants, animals or fungi. This means that diatoms, dinoflagellates, amoebae, ciliates, slime moulds, and many other groups of organisms can be called protists.

protists
using feeding tube (EOL 2011). It reproduces asexually by binary fission (EOL 2011).

Description


They are Close

Subfusiform

Describes a tube shape that widens at both ends and tapers in the middle.

subfusiform
and laterally compressed. Cells are always longer than they are wide: they are 60 - 68 μm long and 16 - 24 μm wide. The cell's Close

Cingulum

(dinoflagellates) "In dinokont dinoflagellates, a furrow encircling the cell one or many times" (Horner 2002). It is also known as the girdle or transverse groove and may be located at, above, or below the midpoint of the cell with the left and right ends meeting or displaced form one another (Horner 2002). In diatoms, this term describes the collective elements of a diatom girdle: "The cingulum is made up of delicate silica bands that join the two valves of a frustule. Most diatoms possess a cingulum, although some may not" (Spaulding et al. 2010).

cingulum
is about ⅓ cell length from the apex. The Close

Epitheca

In thecate dinoflagellates, the anterior part of a dinokont cell above the cingulum. The equivalent of epicone for naked dinoflagellates.

epitheca
is narrower than the Close

Hypotheca

In thecate dinoflagellates, the posterior part of a dinokont cell above the cingulum. The equivalent of a hypocone for naked dinoflagellates.

hypotheca
(Smithsonian 2011) being slightly asymmetrical, ending in a straight Close

Horns

The apical or antapical extensions found in some armoured dinoflagellates; they contain cytoplasm, are covered in thecal plates and can be hollow or partially solid (Horner 2002).

horn
(Horner, 2002). The hypotheca has Close

Lateral

Relating to a side-to-side direction.

laterally
compressed sides with a blunt point at the tip. The cell has a very short Close

Sulcus

"In dinokont dinoflagellates, the longitudinal area on the ventral surface that forms a furrow or depression and houses the longitudinal (trailing) flagellum" (Horner 2002).

sulcus
with narrow Close

Sulcal list

(left and right) In dinokont dinoflagellates, a well-defined groove on the ventral surface that is supported by ribs.

sulcal lists
. O. oxytoxoides is heterotrophic and hence does not have any chloroplasts, so its colour depends on the colour of its food (Horner 2002). It looks like a spindle or an elongated spinning top.

Measurements


Length: 60 - 68 μm
Width: 16 - 24 μm
(Smithsonian 2011)

Similar species


Oxytoxum diploconus (Horner 2002). The hypotheca in O. diploconus is cone-shaped while the hypotheca in Oxyphysis has rounder sides.

Harmful effects


None known.

Habitat


Coastal and open ocean, in temperate to subtropical waters (Horner 2002).

Distribution


Oxyphysis oxytoxoides was earlier thought to live only in the cold coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean (Smithsonian 2011). It is now known to occur throughout the cold temperate to subtropical water of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea as well (EOL 2011). Oxyphysis oxytoxoides has sometimes been seen in the Indian River lagoon and it is speculated that it might have entered the lagoon via inlets from cool nearshore waters (Smithsonian 2011).

Environmental Ranges


Depth range (m): 0 - 15
Temperature range (°C): 19.811 - 23.653
Nitrate (μmol L-1): 0.349 - 8.097
Salinity: 34.513 - 35.114
Oxygen (mL L-1): 4.863 - 5.068
Phosphate (μmol L-1): 0.077 - 1.151
Close

Silicic acid

A general term to describe chemical compounds containing silicon, oxygen and hydrogen with a general formula of [SiOx(OH)4-2x]n. Diatoms polymerize silicic acid into biogenic silica to form their frustules (Azam and Chisholm 1976).

Silicate
(μmol L-1): 2.873 - 6.865

Bloom characteristics


No information available.

References


Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). Oxyphysis oxytoxoides Kofoid 1926. http://www.eol.org. Accessed 18 Sept 2011.

Guiry, M. D. and Guiry, G. M. 2011 Oxyphysis oxytoxoides Kofoid 1926. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=45678. Accessed 24 Sept 2011.

Horner, R. A. 2002. A Taxonomic Guide To Some Common Phytoplankton. Biopress Limited, Dorset Press, Dorchester, UK. 200.

Smithsonian Institution. 2011. Oxyphysis oxytoxoides Kafoid 1926. http://www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/Oxyphy_oxytox.htm. Accessed 16 Oct 2011.


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