Protoperidinium claudicans

Classification
General Dinoflagellate
Description
Shape One straight-sided top cone and two broad cones in the bottom
Size Length 50 - 105 μm, width 48 - 75 μm
Colour Varies dependent on food source, brownish when fixed in Close

Lugol's iodine solution

A solution of elemental iodine and potassium iodide in water; it was first used in 1829 by French physician Jean Lugol as a disinfectant. Lugol's iodine can be used as fixative to preserve phytoplankton samples for visual analysis at a later time (Leakey et al. 1994).

Lugol
Connection None (solitary)
Covering Cellulose Close

Theca

(plural: thecae) Cell wall. In dinoflagellates, it is composed of cellulose plates within vesicles (Horner 2002).

theca
Close

Flagellum

(plural: flagella) A tail-like projection that sticks out from the cell body and enables movement.

Flagella
Two
Close

Chloroplast

An organelle in the cell that contains the cell pigments (Horner 2002). This is where photosynthesis occurs. A chloroplast is a specialized chromatophore.

Chloroplast
None
Behaviour
Lifestyle Close

Heterotroph/heterotrophic

An organism that cannot convert inorganic carbon into a usable energy source. Instead, it consumes other organisms to obtain organic carbon for growth.

Heterotrophic
. Sexual/asexual.
Close

Bloom

A rapid increase or accumulation of algal populations in an aquatic system. This will likely involve one or a few dominant phytoplankton species. This follows seasonal patterns (i.e., spring, summer or fall bloom) with dominant species being those that are best adapted to the environmental conditions of that time period. Discolouration of the water may be observed because of the algae's pigmentation. Blooms are often green but may be yellow-brown or red depending on the species present.

Bloom
Information not available
Harmful effects Information not available
Distribution
Habitat Coastal, Close

Estuarine

Of or relating to estuaries.

estuarine
and oceanic
Geographic Close

Cosmopolitan

Widely distributed; occurring in many parts in the world.

Cosmopolitan
in temperate to tropical waters
Seasonal Spring to summer
Growth Conditions
Close

Salinity

The dissolved ion content of a body of water. Can be measured in the following units: parts per thousand (PPT or ‰), practical salinity units (PSU), and absolute salinity (g/kg). PPT is measured by weight, denoting the number of parts salt per thousand total parts or a value of 10-3. PSU measures the conductivity of saltwater and compares it in a ratio to a standard KCl solution (because this is a ratio, salinity measured in this way can also be written without units). The newest unit of salinity is absolute salinity, which uses the mass fraction of salt in seawater (g salt per kg seawater) rather than its conductivity (TEOS-20 2010).

Salinity
34 - 35 (optimal)
Temperature 18 - 21 °C (optimal)

Synonym(s)


Protoperidinium depressum Bailey 1854
Protoperidinium claudicans Paulsen 1907
Peridinium claudicans
Votadinium spinosum
(Kraberg et al. 2010, EOL 2012)

Classification


Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Protozoa
Subkingdom Biciliata
Infrakingdom Alveolata
Phylum Myzozoa
Subphylum Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Subclass
Order Peridiniales
Family Protoperidiniaceae
Genus Protoperidinium
Species P. claudicans (Paulsen) Balech 1974

(Guiry and Guiry 2012)

Lifestyle


Protoperidinium claudicans is a heterotrophic dinoflagellate (Kraberg et al. 2010). It reproduces both sexually and asexually. It has a Close

Cyst

"A thick-walled dormant cell" (Horner 2002).

cyst
, which is called Votadinium spinosum Reid in micropaleontological studies, with a thin, brown cell wall (Kraberg et al. 2010). Cells feed by extruding their Close

Cytoplasm

In a eukaryotic cell, a gel-like substance within the cell membrane that contains all the organelles except for the nucleus.

cytoplasm
out of their theca and engulfing prey items. Once it has absorbed the contents of the prey, it retracts itself back into its theca. This is called Close

Pallium

(feeding) A mode of feeding used by some heterotrophic dinoflagellates. The dinoflagellate extrudes its cytoplasm, engulfing its food (often a cell or chain of cells). The food is digested outside the dinoflagellate's cell. The dinoflagellate then pulls its cytoplasm and its newly digested meal back inside its theca. This method of feeding allows dinoflagellates to eat food that is bigger than itself.

pallium
feeding (Menden-Deuer et al. 2005).

Description


The cell theca is round in the centre (Evagelopoulos 2002). The Close

Epitheca

In thecate dinoflagellates, the anterior part of a dinokont cell above the cingulum. The equivalent of epicone for naked dinoflagellates.

epitheca
forms a short Close

Apical

(axis, spine) The region of the apex or point. Refers to the most anterior point or region of the cell (HPP 2003).

apical
Close

Horns

The apical or antapical extensions found in some armoured dinoflagellates; they contain cytoplasm, are covered in thecal plates and can be hollow or partially solid (Horner 2002).

horn
. The Close

Hypotheca

In thecate dinoflagellates, the posterior part of a dinokont cell above the cingulum. The equivalent of a hypocone for naked dinoflagellates.

hypotheca
forms two short, tubular and pointed Close

Antapical

Referring to the most posterior point of a cell. The opposite of apical.

antapical
horns. The left antapical horn is always shorter than the right (Evagelopoulos 2002). The sides of the cell bulge out around the Close

Cingulum

(dinoflagellates) "In dinokont dinoflagellates, a furrow encircling the cell one or many times" (Horner 2002). It is also known as the girdle or transverse groove and may be located at, above, or below the midpoint of the cell with the left and right ends meeting or displaced form one another (Horner 2002). In diatoms, this term describes the collective elements of a diatom girdle: "The cingulum is made up of delicate silica bands that join the two valves of a frustule. Most diatoms possess a cingulum, although some may not" (Spaulding et al. 2010).

cingular
lists.

Measurements


Length: 50 - 105 μm
Width: 48 - 75 μm
(Kraberg et al. 2010)

Similar species


Protoperidinium claudicans can be confused with P. oceanicum. P. oceanicum is larger and has longer, thinner apical and antapical horns (Steidinger and Tangen 1997).

Harmful effects


No known harmful effects.

Habitat


P. claudicans occurs mainly in coastal and oceanic areas, though it has been reported in Close

Estuary

The area where a river meets the ocean. Often characterized by high sediments, high nutrient levels, salinity fluctuations and tidal mixing.

estuaries
as well (Steidinger and Tangen 1997).

Distribution


Geographic:
This is a cosmopolitan species that is found in temperate to tropical waters (Steidinger and Tangen 1996). It has been seen in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and in the North Sea (Kraberg et al. 2010).
Seasonal:
It is commonly seen from spring to summer (Kraberg et al. 2010).

Growth conditions


Information not available.

Environmental Ranges


Depth range (m): 0 - 109
Temperature range (°C): 18.405 - 20.934
Nitrate (μmol L-1): 0.846 - 8.908
Salinity: 33.852 - 35.624
Oxygen (mL L-1): 4.709 - 5.491
Phosphate (μmol L-1): 0.179 - 1.452
Close

Silicic acid

A general term to describe chemical compounds containing silicon, oxygen and hydrogen with a general formula of [SiOx(OH)4-2x]n. Diatoms polymerize silicic acid into biogenic silica to form their frustules (Azam and Chisholm 1976).

Silicate
(μmol L-1): 1.030 - 12.403
(EOL 2012)

Bloom characteristics


Does not form blooms, but usually follows blooms of their prey (diatoms and dinoflagellates; pers. comm. D. Cassis).

References


Encyclopedia of Life (EOL 2012). 2012. Protoperidinium claudicans (Paulsen) Balech 1974. http://eol.org/pages/899429/details. Accessed 27 March 2012.

Evagelopoulos, A. 2002. Taxonomic notes on Protoperidinium (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae) species in the Thermaikos Bay (North Aegean Sea, Greece). Mediterranean Marine Science. 3/2: 41-54.

Guiry, M. D. and Guiry, G. M. 2012. P. claudicans (Paulsen) Balech 1974. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=54641. Accessed 27 March 2012.

Kraberg, A., Baumann, M. and Durselen, C. D. 2010. Coastal Phytoplankton Photo Guide for Northern European Seas. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, Germany. 203.

Menden-Deuer, S., Lessard, E. J., Satterberg, J. and Grunbaum, D. 2005. Growth rates and starvation survival of three species of the pallium-feeding, thecate dinoflagellate genus Protoperidinium. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 41: 145-152.

Steidinger, K. A. and Tangen, K. 1997. Dinoflagellates. In: Tomas, C. R. (ed.) Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego. 429.


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