Scrippsiella trochoidea

Classification
General Dinoflagellate
Description
Shape Pear-shaped
Size Length 16 - 36 μm, width 20 - 23 μm
Colour Reddish-green
Connection None (solitary)
Covering Cellulose Close

Theca

(plural: thecae) Cell wall. In dinoflagellates, it is composed of cellulose plates within vesicles (Horner 2002).

theca
Close

Flagellum

(plural: flagella) A tail-like projection that sticks out from the cell body and enables movement.

Flagella
Two unequal
Close

Chloroplast

An organelle in the cell that contains the cell pigments (Horner 2002). This is where photosynthesis occurs. A chloroplast is a specialized chromatophore.

Chloroplast
Several, Close

Discoid

Disc-shaped.

discoid
Behaviour
Lifestyle Close

Photosynthesis

The chemical process by which light energy, water and carbon dioxide are combined to produce oxygen and organic compounds. Photoautotrophic organisms (plants and algae) use this reaction to produce their own food.

Photosynthetic
. Sexual.
Close

Bloom

A rapid increase or accumulation of algal populations in an aquatic system. This will likely involve one or a few dominant phytoplankton species. This follows seasonal patterns (i.e., spring, summer or fall bloom) with dominant species being those that are best adapted to the environmental conditions of that time period. Discolouration of the water may be observed because of the algae's pigmentation. Blooms are often green but may be yellow-brown or red depending on the species present.

Bloom
Late spring to early winter in warm waters
Harmful effects Causes water Close

Discolouration

Change of water colour due to an algal bloom.

discolouration
Distribution
Habitat Coastal and Close

Estuarine

Of or relating to estuaries.

estuarine
waters
Geographic Cold temperate to tropical waters worldwide
Seasonal Late spring to early winter in Close

Stratification

The development of distinct non-mixing layers in the water column resulting from a steep gradient in density, which is caused by differences in temperature and/or salinity.

stratified
waters
Growth Conditions
Close

Salinity

The dissolved ion content of a body of water. Can be measured in the following units: parts per thousand (PPT or ‰), practical salinity units (PSU), and absolute salinity (g/kg). PPT is measured by weight, denoting the number of parts salt per thousand total parts or a value of 10-3. PSU measures the conductivity of saltwater and compares it in a ratio to a standard KCl solution (because this is a ratio, salinity measured in this way can also be written without units). The newest unit of salinity is absolute salinity, which uses the mass fraction of salt in seawater (g salt per kg seawater) rather than its conductivity (TEOS-20 2010).

Salinity
21 - 39
Temperature -2 - 28 °C

Synonym(s)


Glenodinium trochoideum Stein 1883
Glenodinium acuminatum Jorgensen 1899
Periidinium faeroense Paulsen 1905
Peridinium trochoideum (Stein) Lemmermann 1910
Scrippsiella faeoense (Paulsen) Balech and Soares 1967
Scrippsiella faeroense Dickensheets and Cox 1971
(EOL 2011, Horner 2002)

Classification


Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Protozoa
Subkingdom Biciliata
Infrakingdom Alveolata
Phylum Dinoflagellata
Subphylum
Class Dinophyceae
Subclass
Order Peridiniales
Family Peridinaceae
Genus Scrippsiella
Species S. trochoidea (Stein) Loeblich III 1976

(Guiry and Guiry 2011)

Lifestyle


S. trochoidea is a photosynthetic dinoflagellate. It reproduces sexually and is an efficient Close

Cyst

"A thick-walled dormant cell" (Horner 2002).

cyst
producer, which aids in its success in the Close

Neritic

Describing shallow, near-shore areas and the organisms that live there. Refers to shallow marine waters ranging from the low tide mark to the continental shelf. Varying amounts of sunlight penetrate the water, allowing photosynthesis by both phytoplankton and bottom-dwelling organisms. Close proximity to land favours high nutrient content and biological activity (Encyclopedia Britannica 2011).

neritic
environment, because cysts act as a Close

Benthic

The ecological zone at the bottom of a body of water.

benthic
reservoir of the vegetative population (Wang et al. 2007). Its cysts are spherical and covered with Close

Calcareous

Describing the character (i.e., chalky) or chemical presence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as a component of phytoplankton cell covering.

calcareous
Close

Spine

In some diatoms, "closed or solid structures projecting from the cell wall;" in dinoflagellates, solid projections that usually taper to a point.

spines
(Horner 2002).

Description


Cells are relatively small and pear-shaped. The Close

Epitheca

In thecate dinoflagellates, the anterior part of a dinokont cell above the cingulum. The equivalent of epicone for naked dinoflagellates.

epitheca
is conical and has a short Close

Apical

(axis, spine) The region of the apex or point. Refers to the most anterior point or region of the cell (HPP 2003).

apical
Close

Process

A natural projection or appendage on an organism.

process
. The Close

Hypotheca

In thecate dinoflagellates, the posterior part of a dinokont cell above the cingulum. The equivalent of a hypocone for naked dinoflagellates.

hypotheca
is round and does not have any projections (Horner 2002).

Measurements


Length: 16 - 36 μm
Diameter: 20 - 23 μm

Similar species


Pentapharsodinium dalei (EOL 2011). Scrippsiella trichoidea has round hypotheca and apical process (Kuylenstierna and Karlson 2011).

Harmful effects


Blooms can cause water discolouration (Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2009).

Habitat


Estuarine and neritic species (Horner 2002).

Distribution


Close

Cosmopolitan

Widely distributed; occurring in many parts in the world.

Cosmopolitan
species in coastal temperate waters (Horner 2002).

Growth conditions


S. trochoidea can live in a wide range of environmental conditions and in laboratory experiments, has been observed surviving in temperatures ranging from -2 - 30 °C and salinities 5 - 55 (Wang et al. 2007). It is a neritic species that grows well in moderately Close

Eutrophic/eutrophication

Water that is enriched in natural or artificial mineral and organic matter, which promotes an abundance of plant life (i.e., algae), and can result in reduced oxygen conditions.

eutrophic
waters (Montresor et al. 2003).

Environmental Ranges


Depth range (m): 0 - 1032
Temperature range (°C): -2.058 - 27.802
Nitrate (μmol L-1): 0.073 - 35.225
Salinity: 21.003 - 39.081
Oxygen (mL L-1): 0.622 - 9.002
Phosphate (μmol L-1): 0.055 - 2.767
Close

Silicic acid

A general term to describe chemical compounds containing silicon, oxygen and hydrogen with a general formula of [SiOx(OH)4-2x]n. Diatoms polymerize silicic acid into biogenic silica to form their frustules (Azam and Chisholm 1976).

Silicate
(μmol L-1): 0.687 - 101.768

Bloom characteristics


A bloom was observed in a shrimp pond in the Southwestern Gulf of California at average temperature of 26.5 °C (Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2009). UNESCO lists Scrippsiella trochoidea as Close

Harmful Algae Bloom

(HAB) The rapid growth and/or accumulation of algae in areas of constricted flow which may be harmful to the environment, animals, plants or humans by depleting oxygen, obstructing sunlight, and (in some cases) releasing toxins (Heisler et al. 2008).

harmful algal bloom
because it is able to reach high densities especially in stratified waters (SAHFOS 2012).

References


Horner, R. A. 2002. A Taxonomic Guide To Some Common Phytoplankton. Biopress Limited, Dorset Press, Dorchester, UK. 200.

Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). Scrippsiella trichoidea (Stein) Loeblich III. http://eol.org. Accessed on 28 Sept 2011.

Guiry, M. D. and Guiry, G. M. Scrippsiella trichoidea (Stein) Loeblich III. http://eol.org/pages/899623. Accessed 28 Sept 2011.

Gárate-Lizárraga, I., Band-Schmidt, C. J., Lopez-Cortés, D. J. and Muneton-Gomez, M. S. 2009. Bloom of Scrippsiella trochoidea (Gonyaulacaceae) in a shrimp pond in the southwestern Gulf of California, Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 58(1): 145-149.

Kuylenstierna, M. and Karlson, B. 2011. Scrippsiella trichoidea (Stein) Loeblich III 1976. http://www.smhi.se/oceanografi/oce_info_data/plankton_checklist/dinoflagellates/scrippsiella_trochoidea.htm. Accessed 16 Oct 2011.

Wang, Z. H., Qi, Y. Z. and Yang, Y. F. 2007. Cyst formation: an important mechanism for the termination of Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae) bloom. Journal of Plankton Research. 29(2): 209-218.

SAHFOS. http://www.sahfos.ac.uk/taxonomy/phytoplankton/dinoflagellates/scrippsiella-spp.aspx Accessed 21 Mar, 2012.

Montresor, M. Sgrosso, S., Procaccini, G. and Kooistra, W. H. 2003. Intraspecific diversity in Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae): evidence for cryptic species. Phycologia. 42(1): 56-70.


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