Module


Syllabus

Learning Goals

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06

Topic:
Subject 
Largescale Wind Patterns
By the end of this module, you will be able to: 

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a.

Intro to wind turbines

Locate
on a BC map the three main regions having wind farms, and summarize
typical characteristics of hub height, blade diameter, and power.

X




b.

Forces

Explain the nature and direction of each atmospheric force, and calculate their magnitudes based on weather maps and other data. 
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c.

Winds

Determine and explain the wind speed, direction, and characteristics of geostrophic, gradient, and boundarylayer winds.



X


d.

Global & monsoon winds

Name
and describe the winds associated with the general circulation and
monsoons, and explain why various locations are good or bad for wind
turbines.

X




e.

Downmixing of jetstream winds

Explain
how jet streams form and affect weather at the surface, and discuss
three processes that can mix jetstream winds down to the surface.

X




f.

Highs, lows, fronts & sting jets

Describe
and draw maps of how the wind direction and speed change depending on
the location relative to highs, lows, and fronts. Also explain the
characteristics of sting jets. 



X

g.

Synopticscale wind storms

Describe
the synoptic and mesoscale characteristics, and wind hazards,
associated with strong extratropical cyclones that hit southwestern BC.

X




h.

Thunderstorm winds 1  gust fronts

Describe
and estimate atmospheric variables associated with downbursts, outflow
winds and gust fronts, which can affect wind farms. 
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i.

Thunderstorm winds 2  derechos & tornadoes

Discuss the characteristics of rearinflow jets, bow echoes, derechos, tornadoes, and other hazards that can affect wind farms. 




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07

Topic:
Subject 
Turbulent Boundary Layer
By the end of this module, you will be able to:

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a.

Descriptive overview

Sketch
the components of the atmospheric boundary layer including how they
vary in space in time, calculate the potential temperature, and
describe how it is used in meteorology.

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b.

Soundings & thermo diagrams

Plot
sounding data on a skewT and tephigram, and use a thermo diagram to
determine the change of state and buoyancy of rising and descending air
parcels.

X




c.

Static & dynamic stability

Discuss
classifications of atmospheric flow and stability, and use soundings to
determine dynamic and nonlocal static stability and flow characteristics.




X

d.

Turbulence kinetic energy & convection

Use
fastresponse atmospheric data to calculate turbulence statistics
including turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and determine the convective
nature of the boundary layer. Also, use the PasquillGifford method to
estimate the nature of turbulence.

X




e.

Boundary layer winds

Explain
how winds at different heights in the boundary layer evolve during a
daily cycle. Also, plot and interpret winds on a hodograph.




X

f.

Similarity theory winds

Describe and calculate variables that quantify turbulent flow (drag, stress, friction velocity and roughness length) and calculate wind speed vs. height in the surface layer as a function of these variables.




X

g.

Power law, NWP, & turbineaverage winds

Use
the powerlaw wind profile and use NWP gridded forecasts to calculate
hubheight wind speed and turbineaverage wind speed for statically
neutral boundary layers.




X

h.

Lowlevel jet

Describe
the characteristics of the lowlevel jet (LLJ), explain how the
inertial oscillation and baroclinicity can create LLJs, describe how
LLJs affect wind farms.


X



i.

Largeeddy simulation & the turbulence spectrum

Define the scales of motion that apply within the atmospheric boundary layer, explain how a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) can inform us about the turbulence spectrum, and explain the purpose of largeeddy simulation (LES) models. .


X



j.

Turbine wakes & internal boundary layers

Explain how turbulent turbine wakes affect winds at windfarms , and how the wind farm modifies the atmospheric boundary layer.


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k.

IEC wind turbine classes

Explain the utility of IEC Classes. Determine the appropriate Wind Turbine Class from wind and turbulence information. Calculate useful engineering approximations to normal and extreme winds and turbulence that can affect wind turbines .





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08

Topic:
Subject 
Orographic & Local Winds
By the end of this module, you will be able to:



X


a.

Measuring winds with anemometers and Doppler lidar

Describe the main insitu and remote sensors used on turbine nacelles and on meteorological towers.



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b.

Wind variability, frequency, roses

Describe and plot wind roses, frequency distributions, and Weibull and Rayleigh distributions from time series data.


X



c.

Mountain waves, wakes and Froude number

Discuss the meaning of the Froude number, calculate its value, and use it to explain phenomena associated with air flow over mountains.


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d.

Wind acceleration & turbine wakes over ridges

Explain wind acceleration and wake turbulence over idealized hills with different slopes, and identify good and bad locations to install wind turbines.


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e. 
Bernoulli's equation

Explain each term in Bernoulli's equation and the related energybudget equations, describe under what conditions these equations can be used, and use them in calculations that relate wind speed to the other variables in those equations. 

X



f.

Downslope windstorms

Describe the formation and characteristics of fall winds including bora, chinook, Foehn, and other downslope windstorms. Also, be able to calculate potential temperature and use isentropes to analyze these phenomena.


X



g.

Gap winds

Identify locations likely to have gap winds, outflow winds, and barrier jet winds, calculate their speeds, and explain their relevance to wind energy. 

X



h.

Anabatic, katabatic, mountain, valley & seabreeze winds

For anabatic winds, katabatic winds, sea breezes, and other thermal circulations, describe how they work, calculate their speeds, and explain their relevance to wind energy.


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i.

Mapping windpower potential

Describe the Global Wind Atlas, and use it to locate regions of high windresource potential.





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09

Topic:
Subject 
Windpower Forecasting
By the end of this module, you will be able to:



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a.

Numerical weather prediction  part 2

Explain how atmospheric phenomena can be approximated via finite differences and parameterizations to make a weather forecast, and discuss NWP limitations and errors.



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b.

Numerical weather prediction  part 3

Describe the steps in the numerical weather prediction process and explain how they work.



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c.

Ensemble & probabilistic wind forecasts  part 2

Describe systematic and random errors in NWP models, including the theory of atmospheric "chaos", and explain how calibrated ensemble forecasts reduce these errors.



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d.

Forecast skill and verification methods

Calculate verification statistics for deterministic and probabilistic forecasts, determine the forecast quality using those statistics, and make sound decisions based on the costs associated with different decision options. Also explain the NWP spinup issue.



X


e.

Power curve: idealized & Betz limit

Calculate the power produced by a wind turbine as a function of wind speed, and explain how this relates to cutin speed, rated speed, cutout speed, pressure, density, and turbine efficiency relative to Betz limit.



X


f.

Windfarm average power curve, annual energy production & capacity factor

Explain how expected value is used to estimate wind resource potential, and calculate annual energy production and capacity factor for individual turbines and for whole wind farms.




X

g.

Statistical post processing & machine learning  part 2

Describe 5 methods of statistical postprocessing of NWP wind forecasts, and explain their pros and cons. Also, list some of the other secondary products that can be produced in postprocessing.



X


h.

Dispatchability & Markets

Explain the concepts and usage of dispatchability, windplusstorage, power purchase agreements, and the role of Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) in the energy market.

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i.

Threats & hazards to wind turbines

Describe the eight weatherrelated threats and hazards to wind turbines, and explain what mitigation or protective action is possible.




X

j.

Concerns & stakeholders

Describe the role of environmental impact assessments and community engagement for windfarm projects. Also, describe typical stakeholders and nonfraudulent concerns associated with wind turbines.



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k.

Climate change impacts on wind power

Describe how climate change is expected to change largescale circulation patterns, the expected impacts on wind potential, and the uncertainty in these projections.





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