Curtis Suttle


Associate Dean, FRSC, CM, Distinguished University Scholar

Biodiversity 346
(604) 822-8610
Not accepting students

Research in the Suttle laboratory is primarily focussed on viruses and their role in the environment. The work ranges from the characterization of viruses isolated from the environment to quatifiying the role of viruses in microbial mortality and nutrient cycling. The techniques employed range from nucleic-acid sequencing to oceanographic sampling. Some current projects are examining viruses and their roles in the oceans, high Arctic, deep mines, aeolian dust, lakes and migratory-bird ponds. Please check out the lab web page for more information on activities, people and publications.



Projects dealing primarily with algae/algal viruses and cyanobacteria/cyanophage:

Projects dealing primarily with heterotrophic bacteria/bacteriophage:

Graduate Students

  • PhD Oceanography
  • PhD Oceanography
  • PhD Oceanography
  • PhD Oceanography

Post-Doctoral Fellows and Research Associates:

  • Jan Finke

  • Melanie Prentice

  • Kevin Zhong

Graduate Students:

  • Alastair Roberts (PhD Oceanography)
  • Qi Yang (PhD Oceanography)

Undergraduate Students:

  • Yasmine Gouin

Emeritus Graduate Students:

  • Anwar AlQattan (PhD Oceanography)
  • Tianyi Chang  (PhD Oceanography)
  • Ezra Kitson     (MSc Microbiology)
  • Jessica Caleta  (MSc Microbiology)
  • Anna Cho   (MSc Microbiology)
  • Christoph Deeg   (PhD Microbiology)
  • Marli Vlok      (PhD Botany)
  • Jan Finke (Ph.D. Oceanography)
  • Richard White (PhD Microbiology)
  • Jérôme Payet (Ph.D. Oceanography)
  • Matthias Fischer (Ph.D. Microbiology)
  • Caroline Chénard (Ph.D. Oceanography)
  • Jessica Labonté (Ph.D. Microbiology)
  • Alvin Tian (M. Sc. Bioinformatics)
  • Masoud Namini (MEng Environ Engineer)
  • Emma Shelford (Ph. D. Oceanography)
  • Julia Gustavson (Ph. D. Oceanography)
  • Sean Brigden (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Feng Chen (Ph. D. Marine Science)
  • Jessie Clasen (Ph. D. Oceanography)
  • Matt Cottrell (Ph. D. Marine Science)
  • André Comeau (Ph. D. Microbiology)
  • Alex Culley (Ph. D. Botany)
  • Helen Drost (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Cindy Frederickson (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Randy Garza (MSc Marine Science)
  • Nicole McLearn (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Alice Ortmann (Ph. D. Oceanography)
  • Karen Reid (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Kristen Rodda (MSc Marine Science)
  • Steven Short (Ph.D. Botany)
  • Tanya St. John (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Vera Tai (M.Sc. Botany)

Emeritus Post-Doctoral Fellows:

  • Gideon Mordecai
  • Angela Stevenson
  • Cheryl Chow
  • Jennifer Wirth
  • Renat Adelshin
  • Danielle Winget
  • Azeem Ahmad
  • Hudson DeYoe
  • Emma Hambly
  • Janice Lawrence
  • Clemens Pausz
  • Marku Weinbauer
  • Steven Wilhelm


(a) Journals

  1. Zheng, K., Y. Liang, D. Paez-Espino, S. Huang, X. Zou, C. Gao, H. Shao, Y.Y. Sung, W.J. Mok, L.L. Wong, Y.-Z. Zhang, J. Tian, F. Chen, N. Jiao and C.A. Suttle, J. He, A. McMinn and M Wang. 2023. Identification of hidden N4-like viruses and their interactions with hosts. mSystems, e00197-23. (13 September)
  2. , T., B.P.V. Hunt, J. Hirai and C.A. Suttle. 2023. Divergent RNA viruses infecting sea lice, major ectoparasites of fish. PLOS Pathogens 19(6): e1011386. (22 June)
  3. Roberts, A.J. and C.A. Suttle. 2023. Pathogens and passengers: Roles for the viruses of crustacean zooplankton in the global ocean. Microorganisms 11(4):1054. (18 April)
  4. Finke, J.F., C. Kellogg and C.A. Suttle. 2023. Deep6: Classification of metatranscriptome sequences into cellular empires and viral realms using deep learning models. Microbiology Resource Announcements, 12(2):e0107922. MRA01079-22 (18 January)
  5. Zhong, K.X., A.M. Chan, A. Al-Qattan , Y. Li and C.A. Suttle. 2023. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio natriegens strain PWH3a. Microbiology Resource Announcements, 12(1):e0110822. MRA01108-22 (4 January)
  6. Zhong, K.X., J.F. Wirth, A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 2023. Mortality by ribosomal sequencing (MoRS) provides a window into taxon-specific cell lysis. ISME Journal 17, pages 105–116, doi: 10.1038/s41396-022-01327-3
  7. Sutherland, B.J.G., J.F. Finke, R. Saunders, S. Warne, A.D. Schulze, J.H.T. Strohm, A.M. Chan, C.A. Suttle, K.M. Miller (2022). Metatranscriptomics reveals a shift in microbial community composition and function during summer months in a coastal marine environment. Environmental DNA: 00:1-14. EDN3-2022-0034 (7 September)
  8. Gao, C., Y. Liang, Y. Jiang, D. Paez-Espino, M. Han, C. Gu, M. Wang, Y. Yang, F. Liu, Q. Yang, Z. Gong, X. Zhang, Z. Luo, H. He, C. Guo, H. Shao, C. Zhou, Y. Shi, Y. Xin, J. Xing, X. Tang, Q. Qin, Y.-Z. Zhang, J. He, N. Jiao, A. McMinn, J. Tian, C.A. Suttle and M. Wang. 2022. Virioplankton assemblages from Challenger Deep, the deepest place in the oceans. iScience 25(8):104680. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2022.104680 (27 June)
  9. Batanero, G.L., A.J. Green, J.A. Amat, M. Vittecoq, C.A. Suttle, I. Reche. 2022. Patterns of microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity along nitrogen and salinity gradients in coastal wetlands. Aquatic Sciences 84:22; doi: 0.1007/s00027-022-00855-6 (17 March)
  10. Gu, C., Y. Liang, J. Li, H. Shao, Y. Jiang, X. Zhou, C. Gao, X. Li, W. Zhang, C. Guo, H. He, H. Wang, Y.Y. Sung, W.J. Mok, L.L. Wong, C.A. Suttle, A. McMinn, J. Tian, M. Wang. 2021. Saline lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau harbor unique viral assemblages mediating microbial environmental adaption. iScience 24(12)103439; doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2021.103439 (17 December)
  11. Zhong, K.X., A. Cho, C.M. Deeg, A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 2021. Revealing the composition of the eukaryotic microbiome of oyster spat by CRISPR-Cas selective amplicon sequencing (CCSAS). Microbiome 9:230; doi: 10.1186/s40168-021-01180-0 (26 November)
  12. Sumaila, U.R. and 296 others. 2021. WTO must ban harmful fisheries subsidies. Science 37(374): 544. doi: 10.1126/science.abm1680 (29 October)
  13. Gao, C., J. Xia, X. Zhou, Y. Liang, Y. Jiang, M. Wang, H. Shao, X. Shi, C. Guo, H. He, H. Wang, J. He, D. Hu, X. Wang, J. Zhao, Y.-Z. Zhang, Y. Sung, W. Mok, L. Wong, A. McMinn, C.A. Suttle and M. Wang. 2021. Viral characteristics of the warm Atlantic and cold Arctic water masses in the Nordic Seas. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 87(22) e01160-21; doi:10.1128/AEM.01160-21 (28 October)
  14. Lang, A.S., M. Vlok, A.I. Culley, C.A. Suttle, Y. Takao, Y. Tomaru, ICTV Report Consortium. 2021. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Marnaviridae 2021. Journal of General Virology 102(8): jgv.0.001633; doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001633 (online 6 Aug)
  15. Ashy, R.A., C.A. Suttle and S. Agusti. 2021. Moderate seasonal dynamics indicate an important role for lysogeny in the Red Sea. Microorganisms 9(6) 1269; doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9061269 (11 June)
  16. Gustavsen, J.A. and C.A. Suttle. 2021. Role of phylogenetic structure in the dynamics of coastal viral assemblages. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 87(11) e02704-20; doi: 10.1128/AEM.02704-20 (11 May)
  17. , N., J. Liu, B. Edwards, Z. Lv, R. Cai, Y. Liu, X. Xiao, J. Wang, F. Jiao, R. Wang, X. Huang, B. Guo, J. Sun, R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, K. Tang, Q. Zheng, F. Azam, J. Batt, W.-J. Cai, C. He, G.J. Herndl, P. Hill, D. Hutchins, J. LaRoche, M. Lewis, H. MacIntyre, L. Polimene, C. Robinson, Q. Shi, C.A. Suttle, H. Thomas, D. Wallace and L. Legendre. 2021. Correcting a major error in assessing organic carbon pollution in natural waters. Science Advances: 7(16): eabc7318; doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abc7318 (14 April).
  18. Kaneko, H., R. Blanc-Mathieu, H. Endo, S. Chaffron, T.O. Delmont, M. Gaia, N. Henry, R. Hernández-Velázquez, C.H. Nguyen, H. Mamitsuka, P. Forterre, O. Jaillon, C. de Vargas, M.B. Sullivan, C.A. Suttle, L. Guidi and H. Ogata. 2021. Eukaryotic virus composition can predict the efficiency of carbon export in the global ocean. iScience 24(1): 102002; doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2020.102002 (22 January).
  19. Mordecai, G.J., E. Di Cicco, O. Günther, A.D. Schulze, K.H. Kaukinen, S. Li, A. Tabata, T.J. Ming, C.A. Suttle and K.M. Miller 2021. Discovery and surveillance of viruses from salmon in British Columbia using viral immune-response biomarkers, metatranscriptomics and high-throughput RT-PCR. Virus Evolution 7(1): veaa069; doi: 10.1093/ve/veaa069; (Epub 1 September 2020) (24 pages)
  20. Sutherland B.J.G., C. Rycroft, A.-L. Ferchaud, R. Saunders, L. Li, S. Liu, A.M. Chan, S.P. Otto, C.A. Suttle, K.M. Miller. 2020. Relative genomic impacts of translocation history, hatchery practices, and farm selection in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Evolutionary Applications 13(6): 1380-1399; doi: 10.1111/eva.12965, March.
  21. Deeg, C.M., T.L. Tan, M.M. Zimmer and C.A. Suttle. 2020. From the inside out: An epibiotic Bdellovibrio predator with an expanded genomic complement. Journal of Bacteriology 202(8):e00565-00519; doi: 10.1128/JB.00565-1926, 3 February (16 pages)
  22. Vlok, M., A.S. Lang and C.A. Suttle. 2019. Application of a sequence-based taxonomic classification method to uncultured and unclassified marine single-stranded RNA viruses in the order Picornavirales. Virus Evolution 5:vez 056. 4:e00157-19; doi: 10.1093/ve/vez056. (Epub 31 December) (11 pages)
  23. Fong, K., D.M. Tremblay, P. Delaquis, L. Goodridge, R. Levesque, S. Moineau, C.A. Suttle and S. Wang. 2019. Diversity and host specificity revealed by biological characterization and whole genome sequencing of bacteriophages infecting Salmonella enterica. 2019. Viruses 11(9), 854; doi: 10.3390/v11090854 (Epub 14 September) (19 pages)
  24. Mordecai, G.J., K.M. Miller, E. DiCicco, A.D. Schulze, K.H. Kaukinen, T.J. Ming, S. Li, A. Tabata, A. Teffer, D.A. Patterson, H.W. Ferguson, C.A. Suttle. 2019. Endangered wild salmon infected by newly discovered viruses found in dying farmed salmon. eLife 8:e47615; doi: 10.7554/eLife.47615 (Epub 03 September) (18 pages)
  25. Malaterre, C., A.C. Dussault, S. Rousseau-Mermans, G. Barker, B.E. Beisner, F. Bouchard, E. Desjardins, I.T. Handa, S. Kembel, G. Lajoie, V. Maris, A. Munson, J. Odenbaugh, T. Poisot, B.J. Shapiro and C.A. Suttle. 2019. Functional Diversity: An Epistemic Roadmap. Bioscience 69(10): 800-811; doi: 10.1093/biosci/biz089 (published 04 September)
  26. Deeg, C.M., M.M Zimmer, E. George, F. Husnik, P.J. Keeling and C.A. Suttle. 2019. Chromulinavorax destructans, a pathogen of microzooplankton that provides a window into the enigmatic candidate phylum Dependentiae. PLOS Pathogens 15:e1007801; doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007801 (Epub 31 May) (18 pages)
  27. Pagowski, V., G.J. Mordecai, K.M. Miller, A.D. Schulze, K.H. Kaukinen, T.J. Ming, S. Li, A. Teffer, A. Tabata, C.A. Suttle. 2019. Distribution and phylogeny of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) in salmon suggests marine origin. Viruses 11(4), 358; doi: 10.3390/v11040358 (Epub 18 April) (16 pages)
  28. Vlok, M., A.S. Lang and C.A. Suttle. 2019. Marine RNA virus quasispecies are distributed throughout the oceans. mSphere. 4:e00157-19; doi: 10.1128/mSphereDirect.00157-19. (Epub 3 April) (18 pages)
  29. Vlok, M., A.J. Gibbs and C.A. Suttle. 2019. Metagenomes of a freshwater Charavirus from British Columbia provide a window into ancient lineages of viruses of animals and plants. Viruses 11(3), 299; doi: 10.3390/v11030299 (Epub 25 March) (17 pages)
  30. Cai, L., B.B. Jørgensen, C.A. Suttle, M. He, B.A. Cragg, N. Jiao, R. Zhang. 2019. Active viruses persist in the deep sub-seafloor sediments over thousands of years. ISMEJ Jul;13(7):1857-1864; doi: 10.1038/s41396-019-0397-9 (Epub 15 March)
  31. Kitson, E. and C.A. Suttle. 2019. VHost-Classifier: Virus-Host Classification using natural language processing. Bioinformatics btz151; doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btz151 (Epub 01 March) (3 pages)
  32. Finke, J.F. and C.A. Suttle. 2019. The environment and cyanophage diversity: insights from environmental sequencing of DNA polymerase. Frontiers in Microbiology 10:167; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00167 (Epub 08 February) (16 pages)
  33. White III, R.A., S.A. Soles, G. Gavelis, E. Gosselin, G.F. Slater, D.S.S. Lim, B. Leander, C.A. Suttle. 2019. The complete genome and physiological analysis of the eurythermal firmicute Exiguobacterium chiriqhucha strain RW2 isolated from a freshwater microbialite, widely adaptable to broad thermal, pH and salinity ranges. Frontiers in Microbiology 9:3189; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.03189 (Epub 08 Jan) (21 pages)
  34. Roux, S., E.M. Adriaenssens, B.E. Dutilh, E.V. Koonin, AM. Kropinski, M. Krupovic, J.H. Kuhn, R. Lavigne, J.R. Brister, A. Varsani, C. Amid, R.K. Aziz, S.R. Bordenstein, P. Bork, M. Breitbart, G.R. Cochrane, R.A. Daly, C. Desnues, M.B. Duhaime, J.B. Emerson, F. Enault, J.A. Fuhrman, P. Hingamp, P. Hugenholtz, B.L. Hurwitz, N.N. Ivanova, J.M. Labonte, R.R. Malmstrom, M. Martinez-Garcia, I. Mizrachi, H. Ogata, D. Páez-Espino, M.-A. Petit, C. Putonti, T. Rattei, A. Reyes, F. Rodriguez-Valera, K. Rosario, L. Schriml, F. Schulz, G.F. Steward, M.B. Sullivan, S. Sunagawa, C.A. Suttle, B. Temperton, S.G. Tringe, R.V. Thurber, N.S. Webster, K.L. Whiteson, S.W. Wilhelm, K.E. Wommack, T. Woyke, K. Wrighton, P. Yilmaz, T. Yoshida, M.J. Young, N. Yutin, L.Z. Allen, N.C. Kyrpides, E.A. Eloe-Fadrosh. 2019. Minimum Information about Uncultivated Virus Genomes (MIUViG): a community consensus on standards and best practices for describing genome sequences from uncultivated viruses. Nature Biotechnology 39:29-37; doi:10.1038/nbt.4306 (Epub 17 December) (9 pages) (top 2% of papers on Altmetrics)
  35. Zhong, X.K., C.A. Suttle, A.-C. Baudoux, E. Derelle, J. Colombet, A. Cho, J. Caleta, C. Six, S. Jacquet. 2018. A new cyanophage harbouring integrase as well as genes related to iron-acquisition and phage resistance. Frontiers in Microbiology doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02204 (Epub 19 Sep) (15 pages) (top 5% of papers on Altmetrics)
  36. White III, R.A., G. Gavelis, S.A. Soles, E. Gosselin, G.F. Slater, D.S.S. Lim, B. Leander and C. A. Suttle. 2018. The complete genome and physiological analysis of microbialite-dwelling Agrococcus pavilionensis sp. nov; genetic promiscuity and adaptations to environmental stress. Frontiers in Microbiology doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02180 (Epub 15 Oct) (17 pages)
  37. Zhang, C., H. Dang, F. Azam, R. Benner, L. Legendre, U. Passow, L. Polimene, C. Robinson, C.A. Suttle, and N. Jiao. 2018. Evolving paradigms in biological carbon cycling in the ocean. National Science Review doi: 10.1093/nsr/nwy074 (Epub 13 July) (41 pages)
  38. Zheng, Q., Q. Chen, Y. Xu, C.A. Suttle and N. Jiao. 2018. A virus infecting marine photoheterotrophic alphaproteobacteria (Citromicrobium spp.) defines a new lineage of ssDNA viruses. Frontiers in Microbiology doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01418 (Epub 27 June) (19 pages) (top 5% of papers on Altmetrics)
  39. Di Cicco, E., H.W. Ferguson, K.H. Kaukinen, A.D. Schulze, S. Li, A. Tabata, O. Gunther, G. Mordecai, C.A. Suttle and K.M. Miller. 2018. The same strain of Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is involved with the development of different, but related, diseases in Atlantic and Pacific Salmon in British Columbia. FACETS 3:599-641; doi: 10.1139/facets-2018-0008 (Epub 16 June) (43 pages) (top 5% of papers on Altmetrics)
  40. Bachy, C., C.J. Charlesworth, A.M. Chan, J.F. Finke, C.H. Wong, C.L. Wei, G. Kunde-Ramamoorthy, M.L. Coleman, C.A. Suttle and A.Z. Worden. 2018. Transcriptional responses of the marine green alga Micromonas pusilla and an infecting prasinovirus under different phosphate conditions. Environmental Microbiology; doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.14273 (Epub 15 May) (15 pages)
  41. The kinetoplastid-infecting Bodo saltans virus (BsV), a window into the most abundant giant viruses in the sea. eLife 7:e33014; doi: 10.7554/eLife.33014.001; (28 March 2018) (22 pages) (top 5% of papers on Altmetrics)
  42. Shelford, E.J. and C.A. Suttle. 2018. Virus mediated transfer of nitrogen from heterotrophic bacteria to phytoplankton. Biogeosciences 15:809-819; doi: 10.5194/bg-15-809-2018, (9 February 2018) (11 pages) (top 5% of papers on Altmetrics)
  43. *Reche, I., G. D'Orta, N. Mladenov, D.M. Winget and C.A Suttle. 2018. High deposition of viruses and bacteria above the atmospheric boundary layer. ISME Journal 12: 1154–1162; doi: 10.1038/s41396-017-0042-4 (29 January 2018) (top 5% of papers on Altmetrics; Highest of 1,955 papers published in ISMEJ; 2 January 2019)
  44. Qiang, Z., Y. Wang, R. Xie, A.S. Lang, Yanting Liu, Jiayao Lu, Xiaodong Zhang, Jun Sun, C.A. Suttle, and N. Jiao. 2018. Dynamics of heterotrophic bacterial assemblages within Synechococcus cultures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 84(3) e01517-17; doi: 10.1128/AEM.01517-17 (Epub 17 November 2017) (16 pages)
  45. Batanero, G.L., E. León-Palmero, L. Li, A.J. Green, M. Rendón-Martos, C. A. Suttle and I. Reche. 2017. Flamingos and drought as drivers of nutrients and microbial dynamics in a saline lake. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 12173. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-12462-9 (13 pages)
  46. Hawley, A., M. Torres Beltran, E. Zaikova, D. Walsh, A. Mueller, M. Scofield, S. Kheirandish, C. Payne, L. Pakhomova, M. Bhatia, O. Shevchuk, E. Gies, D. Fairley, S. Malfatti, A. Norbeck, H. Brewer, L. Pasa-Tolic, T.G. del Rio, C.A. Suttle, S. Tringe, and S. Hallam. 2017. A compendium of multi-omic sequence information from the Saanich Inlet water column. Scientific Data 4, Article number: 170160 doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.160 (21 pages)
  47. Xiao, C., M.G. Fischer, D.M. Bolotaulo, N. Ulloa-Rondeau, G.A. Avila and C.A Suttle. 2017. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the Cafeteria roenbergensis virus capsid suggests novel assembly pathway for giant viruses. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 5484. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05824-w (7 pages)
  48. Torres Beltran, M., A. Hawley, D. Capelle, E. Zaikova, D. Walsh, A. Mueller, M. Scofield, C. Payne, L. Pakhomova, S. Kheirandish, J. Finke, M. Bhatia, O. Shevchuk, E. Gies, D. Fairley, C. Michiels, C.A. Suttle, F. Whitney, S. Crowe, P. Tortell, and S. Hallam. 2017. A compendium of geochemical information from the Saanich Inlet water column. Scientific Data 4, Article number: 170159 doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.159 (22 pages)
  49. Finke, J.F., B.P.V. Hunt, C. Winter , E.C. Carmack and C.A Suttle. 2017. Nutrients and other environmental factors influence virus abundances across oxic and hypoxic marine environments. Viruses 9(6), 152. doi:10.3390/v9060152 (17 pages)
  50. Finke, J.F., D.M. Winget, A.M. Chan and C.A Suttle. 2017. Variation in the genetic repertoire of viruses infecting Micromonas pusilla reflects horizontal gene transfer and links to their environmental distribution. Viruses 9(5), 116. doi: 10.3390/v9050116 (18 pages)
  51. Simmonds, P., M.J. Adams, M. Benkő, M. Breitbart, J.R. Brister, E.B. Carstens, A.J. Davison, E. Delwart, A.E. Gorbalenya, B. Harrach, R. Hull, A.M.Q. King, E.V. Koonin, M. Krupovic, J.H. Kuhn, E.J. Lefkowitz, M.L. Nibert, R. Orton, M.J. Roossinck, S. Sabanadzovic, M.B. Sullivan, C.A. Suttle, R.B. Tesh, R.A. van der Vlugt, A. Varsani, F.M. Zerbin. 2017. Virus taxonomy in the age of metagenomics. Nature Reviews Microbiology 15:161–168. doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.177  (top 1% of papers on Altmetrics)
  52. Chénard, C., J.F. Wirth and C.A. Suttle. 2016. Viruses infecting a freshwater filamentous cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) encode DNA polymerase B from a proteobacterium and a functional CRISPR array. mBio 7(3):e00667-16. doi:10.1128/mBio.00667-16 (11 pages) (top 5% of papers on Altmetrics)
  53. Uyaguari-Diaz, M.I., M. Chan, B. Chabin, M. Croxen, J.F. Finke, J.E. Hill, M.A. Peabody, T. Van Rossum, C.A. Suttle, F.S.L. Brinkman, J. Issac-Renton, N.A. Prystajecky and P.K.C. Tang. 2016. A comprehensive method for amplicon-based and metagenomic characterization of viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes in freshwater samples. Microbiome 4:20; doi:10.1186/s40168-016-0166-1 (19 pages)
  54. White, R.A. III, A.M. Chan, G.S. Gavelis, B.S. Leander, A.L. Brady, G.F. Slater, D.S. Lim and C.A. Suttle. 2016. Metagenomic analysis suggests modern freshwater microbialites harbor a core and distinct microbial community. Frontiers in Microbiology 6:1531; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01531 (14 pages)
  55. Wigington, C., D. Sonderegger, C.P.D. Brussaard, A. Buchan, J.F. Finke, J.A. Fuhrman, J. Lennon, M. Middelboe, C.A. Suttle, C. Stock, W.H. Wilson, K.E. Wommack, S.W. Wilhelm, and J.S. Weitz. 2016. Re-examining the relationship between marine virus and microbial cell abundances. Nature Microbiology 1: Article 15024;  doi: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2015.24 (8 pages)
  56. Van Rossum, T., M.A. Peabody, M.I. Uyaguari-Diaz, K.I. Cronin, C.A. Suttle, W.W.L. Hsiao, P.K.C. Tang, N.A. Prystajecky, and F.S.L. Brinkman. 2015. Year-long metagenomic study of river microbiomes across land use and water quality.  Frontiers in Microbiology 6:1405; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01405 (15 pages)
  57. Chow, C.E.T. and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Biogeography of viruses in the sea. Annual Reviews of Virology 2:41-66; doi: 10.1146/annurev-virology-031413-085540
  58. Gavelis, G.S., S. Hayakawa, R.A. White III, T. Gojobori, C.A. Suttle, P.J. Keeling and B.S. Leander. 2015. Eyelike ocelloids are built from different endosymbiotically acquired components. Nature 523:204–207; doi: 10.1038/nature14593
  59. White, R.A. III, I.M. Power, G.M. Dipple, G. Southam and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential. Frontiers in Microbiology 6:966; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00966 (14 pages)
  60. Gavelis, G.S., R.A. White III, C.A. Suttle, P.J. Keeling and B.S. Leander. 2015. Investigating the origin of plastids in Polykrikos lebourae (Dinoflagellata) using single-cell genomics and single-cell transcriptomics. BMC Genomics :528; doi: 10.1186/s12864-015-1636-8 (9 pages)
  61. Labonté, J.M., S.J. Hallam and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Previously unknown evolutionary groups dominate the ssDNA gokushoviruses in oxic and anoxic waters of a coastal marine environment. Frontiers in Microbiology 6:315; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00315 (10 pages)
  62. Chénard, C., A.M. Chan, W.F. Vincent and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Polar freshwater cyanophage S-EIV1 represents a new evolutionary lineage of phages that are widespread and abundant. ISME Journal 2046–2058; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2015.24
  63. Chow, C.E.T., D.M. Winget, R.A. White III, , S.J. Hallam  and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Combining genomic sequencing methods to reveals patterns of viral diversity and potential virus- host interactions. Frontiers in Microbiology 6:265; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00265 (15 pages)
  64. Wood-Charlson, E.M., K.D. Weynberg, C.A. Suttle, S. Roux and M.J.H. van Oppen. 2015. Metagenomic characterisation of viral communities in corals: Mining biological signal from methodological noise. Environmental Microbiology 17:3440–3449;  doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12803             
  65. Weitz, J.S., C.A. Stock, S.W. Wilhelm , L. Bourouiba, A. Buchan, M.L. Coleman, M.J. Follows, J.A. Fuhrman, L.F. Jover, J.T. Lennon, M. Middelboe, D.L. Sonderegger, C.A. Suttle, B.P. Taylor, T.F. Thingstad , W.H. Wilson and K.E. Wommack. 2015. A multitrophic model to quantify the effects of marine viruses on microbial food webs and ecosystem processes. ISME Journal 9: 1352-1364; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.220
  66. Gustavsen, J.A., D.M. Winget, X. Tian and C.A. Suttle. 2014. High temporal and spatial diversity in marine RNA viruses (Picornavirales) revealed by high-throughput sequencing implies an important role in mortality and structuring of plankton communities. Frontiers in Microbiology 5:703; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00703 (13 pages)
  67. Shelford, E.J., N.O.G. Jørgensen, S. Rasmussen, C.A. Suttle and M. Middelboe. 2014. Dissecting the role of viruses in marine nutrient cycling: bacterial uptake of D- and L- amino acids released by viral lysis. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 73:235-243; doi: 10.3354/ame01720
  68. Fischer, M.G., I. Kelly, L.J. Foster and C.A. Suttle. 2014. The virion of Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV) contains a complex suite of proteins for transcription and DNA repair. Virology 466-467:82-94; doi:10.1016/j.virol.2014.05.029
  69. Weynberg, K.D., E.M. Wood-Charlson, C.A. Suttle and M.J.H. van Oppen. 2014. Generating viral metagenomes from the coral holobiont. Frontiers in Microbiology 5:206; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00206 (11 pages)
  70. Payet, J.P. and C.A. Suttle. 2014. Viral infection of bacteria and phytoplankton in the Arctic Ocean as viewed through the lens of fingerprint analysis. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 72:47-61; doi: 10.3354/ame01684
  71. Labonté, J.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2013. gokushoviruses and biogeographic separation in the sea. Frontiers in Microbiology 4:404; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00404 (11 pages)
  72. Zheng, Q., N. Jiao, R. Zhang, F. Chen and C.A. Suttle. 2013. Prevalence of psbA-containing cyanobacterial podoviruses in the ocean. Scientific Reports 3(3207); doi: 10.1038/srep03207 (4 pages)
  73. Labonté, J.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2013. Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses populate the oceans. ISME Journal 2169–2177; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2013.110
  74. Winter, C., B. Mathews and C.A. Suttle. 2013. Effects of environmental variation and spatial distance on Bacteria, Archaea, and viruses in sub-polar and arctic waters. ISME Journal 1507–1518; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2013.56.
  75. Payet, J.P. and C.A. Suttle. 2013. To kill or not to kill: The balance between lytic and lysogenic viral infection is driven by trophic status. Limnology and Oceanography 58:465-474; doi: 10.4319/lo.2013.58.2.0465
  76. Declerck, S.A.J., C. Winter, J.B. Shurin, C.A. Suttle and B. Matthews. 2013. Effects of patch connectivity and heterogeneity on metacommunity structure of planktonic bacteria and viruses. ISME Journal 7:533-542; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2012.138
  77. Suttle, C.A. 2013. Viruses: unlocking the greatest biodiversity on Earth. Genome 56:542-544; doi: 10.1139/gen-2013-0152
  78. Winter, C., J.P. Payet and C.A. Suttle. 2012. Modeling the Winter-to-Summer transition of prokaryotic and viral abundance in the Arctic Ocean. PLoS ONE 7 (12), e52794 (14 pages)
  79. Shelford, E.J., M. Middelboe, E.F. Møller and C.A. Suttle. 2012. Virus-driven nitrogen cycling enhances phytoplankton growth. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 66:41-46
  80. Gimenes, M.V., P.M.A. Zanotto, C.A. Suttle, H.B. da Cunha and D.U. Mehnert. 2012. Phylodynamics and movement of Phycodnaviruses among aquatic environments. ISME Journal 6:237-247
  81. *Fischer, M.G. and C.A. Suttle. 2011. A Virophage at the origin of large DNA transposons. Science 332:231-234
  82. Goldsmith, D.B., G. Crosti, B. Dwivedi, L.D. McDaniel, A. Varsani, C.A. Suttle, M.G. Weinbauer, R.-A. Sandaa and M. Breitbart. 2011. Pho regulon genes in phage: Development of phoH as a novel signature gene for assessing marine phage diversity. Applied Environmental Microbiology
  83. Matthews, B., S. Hausch, C. Winter, C.A. Suttle and J.B. Shurin. 2011. Contrasting ecosystem effects of morphologically similar copepods. PLoS ONE 6(11): e26700 (10 pages)
  84. Veillette, J., C. Lovejoy, M. Potvin, T. Harding, A.G. Jungblut, D. Antoniades, C. Chénard, C.A. Suttle and W.F. Vincent. 2011. Milne Fiord epishelf lake: a coastal arctic ecosystem vulnerable to climate change. Ecoscience 18:304-316
  85. Weinbauer, M.G., O. Bonilla-Findji, A.M. Chan, M. Agis, J.R. Dolan, S.M. Short, K. Šimek, S.W. Wilhelm, and C.A. Suttle. 2011. Synechococcus growth in the ocean may depend on the lysis of heterotrophic bacteria. Journal of Plankton Research 33:1465-1476
  86. Danovaro, R., C. Corinaldesi, A. Dell’Anno, J.A. Fuhrman, J.J. Middelburg, R.T. Noble and C.A. Suttle. 2011. Marine viruses and global climate change, FEMS Microbiology Reviews 35:993-1034
  87. Moore, R.A., R.L. Warren, J.D. Freeman, J.A. Gustavsen, C. Chénard, J.M. Friedman, C.A. Suttle, Y. Zhao, and R.A. Holt. 2011. The sensitivity of massively parallel sequencing for detecting candidate infectious agents associated with human tissue. PLoS ONE 6(5) p. e19838 (6 pages)
  88. *Fischer, M.G., M.J. Allen, W.H. Wilson and C.A. Suttle. 2010. A giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:
  89. Labonté, J., K.E. Reid and C.A. Suttle. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis indicates evolutionary diversity and environmental segregation of marine podovirus DNA polymerase gene sequences. Applied Environmental Microbiology
  90. Clasen J.L. and C.A. Suttle. 2009. Identifying freshwater Phycodnaviridae and their potential phytoplankton hosts using DNA pol sequence fragments and a genetic distance analysis. Applied Environmental Microbiology
  91. Vincent, W.F., L.G. Whyte, C. Lovejoy, C.W. Greer, I. Laurion, C.A. Suttle, J. Corbeil and D.R. Mueller. 2009. Arctic microbial ecosystems and impacts of extreme warming during the International Polar Year. Polar Science 3:171-180
  92. Chénard C. and C.A. Suttle. 2008. Phylogenetic diversity of cyanophage photosynthetic genes (psbA) in marine and fresh waters. Applied Environmental Microbiology
  93. Payet, J.P. and C.A. Suttle. 2008. Physical and biological correlates of virus dynamics in the southern Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf. Journal of Marine Systems 74:933-945
  94. Brussaard C.P.D, S.W. Wilhelm, T.F. Thingstad, M.G. Weinbauer, G. Bratbak, M. Heldal, S.A. Kimmance, M. Middelboe, K. Nagasaki, J.H. Paul, D.C. Schroeder, C.A. Suttle, D. Vaqué and K.E. Wommack 2008. Global-scale processes with a nanoscale drive: the role of marine viruses. ISME Journal 575–578
  95. Clasen, J.L., S.M. Brigden, J.P. Payet and C.A. Suttle. 2008. Viral abundance across marine and freshwater systems is driven by different biological factors. Freshwater Biology 53:1090-1100
  96. *Suttle C.A 2007. Marine viruses – major players in the global ecosystem. Nature Reviews Microbiology 5:801-812 (As of September/October 2014, this highly cited paper received enough citations to place it in the top 1% of the academic field of Microbiology based on a highly cited threshold for the field and publication year)
  97. Cully A.I., A.S. Lang and C.A. Suttle. 2007. The complete genomes of three viruses assembled from shotgun libraries of marine RNA virus communities. Virology Journal 4:69 (doi:10.1186/1743-422X-4-69)
  98. Breitbart M., L.R. Thompson, C.A. Suttle and M.B. Sullivan. 2007. Exploring the vast diversity of marine viruses. Oceanography. 20:135-139
  99. Comeau, A.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2007. of Vibrio spp. from coastal British Columbia. Environmental Microbiology 9:1790-1800
  100. *Culley A.I., A.S. Lang and . 2006. Metagenomic analysis of coastal RNA virus communities. Science 312:1795-1798
  101. Angly F.E., B. Felts, M. Breitbart, P. Salamon, R.A. Edwards, C. Carlson, A.M. Chan, M. Haynes, S. Kelley, H. Liu, J.M. Mahaffy, J.E. Mueller, J. Nulton, R. Olson, R. Parsons, S. Rayhawk, C.A. Suttle, F. Rohwer. 2006. The marine viromes of four oceanic regions. 4(11):e368 (Highly cited: As of September/October 2014, this highly cited paper received enough citations to place it in the top 1% of the academic field of Biology & Biochemistry based on a highly cited threshold for the field and publication year – Thomson Reuters, Essential Science Indicators)
  102. Lawrence J.E., C.P.D. Brussaard, and . 2006. Virus-specific responses of Heterosigma akashiwo to infection. Applied Environmental Microbiology 72:7829-7834
  103. Comeau, A.M., A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 2006. . Environmental Microbiology 8:1164-1176
  104. Filée J., F. Tétart, C.A. Suttle and H.M. Krisch.. 2006. W-type bacteriophages: ubiquitous components of the "dark matter" of the biosphere. M S-Medecine Sciences 22:111-112
  105. *Suttle, C.A. 2005. Viruses in the sea. Nature 437:356-361 (As of September/October 2014, this highly cited paper received enough citations to place it in the top 1% of the academic field of Environment/Ecology based on a highly cited threshold for the field and publication year)
  106. *Filée J., F. Tétart, C.A. Suttle and H.M. Krisch. 2005. Marine T4-type bacteriophages, a ubiquitous component of the dark matter of the biosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102:12471-12476
  107. Comeau, A.M., E. Buenaventura and C.A. Suttle. 2005. A Persistent, productive and seasonally dynamic vibriophage population within Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71:5324-5331
  108. Hambly, E. and C.A. Suttle. 2005. The viriosphere, diversity, and genetic exchange within phage communities. Current Opinion in Microbiology 8:444-450
  109. Ortmann, A.C. and C.A. Suttle. 2005. High abundances of viruses in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent system indicates viral mediated microbial mortality. Deep Sea Research 52:1515-1527
  110. Short, C.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2005. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71:480-486
  111. Daughney C.J., Chatellier X., Chan A.M., Kenward P., Fortin D., Suttle C.A., Fowle D.A.. 2004. Adsorption and precipitation of iron from seawater on a marine bacteriophage (PWH3A-P1). Marine Chemistry 91:101-115
  112. Wen, K., A.C. Ortmann and C.A. Suttle. 2004. Accurate estimates of viral abundance by epifluorescence microscopy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70:3862-3867
  113. Brussaard, C.P.D., S.M. Short, C.M. Frederickson and C.A. Suttle. 2004. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of novel viruses infecting the phytoplankter Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70:3700-37054
  114. Lawrence, J.E. and C.A. Suttle. 2004. The effect of viral infection on sinking rates of Heterosigma akashiwo and its implications for bloom termination Aquatic Microbial Ecology 37:1-7
  115. Comeau, A.M., S.M. Short and C.A. Suttle. 2004. The use of degenerate-primed random amplification of polymorphic DNA (DP-RAPD) for strain-typing and inferring the genetic similarity among closely related viruses. Journal of Virological Methods 118:95-100
  116. Lang, A.S., A.I. Culley and C.A. Suttle. 2003. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of a marine picorna-like virus, HaRNAV, that infects the toxic bloom-forming alga Heterosigma akashiwo. Virology 320:206-217
  117. Frederickson, C.M., S.M. Short and C.A. Suttle. 2003. The physical environment affects cyanophage communities in British Columbia inlets. Microbial Ecology 46:348-357
  118. Culley, A.I., A.S. Lang and C.A. Suttle. 2003. High diversity of unknown picorna-like viruses in the sea. Nature 424:1054-1057
  119. Short, S.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2003. Temporal dynamics of natural communities of marine algal viruses and eukaryotes. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 32:107-119
  120. Hardies, S.C., A.M. Comeau, P. Serwer and C.A. Suttle. 2003. The complete sequence of marine bacteriophage VpV262 infecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus indicates that an ancestral component of a T7 viral supergroup is widespread in the marine environment. Virology 310:359-371
  121. Tai, V., J.E. Lawrence, A.S. Lang, A.E. Culley, A.M. Chan, C.A. Suttle. 2003. Characterization of HaRNAV, a single-stranded RNA virus causing lysis of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae). Journal of Phycology 39:343-352
  122. Juneau, P., J.E. Lawrence, C.A. Suttle and P.J. Harrison. 2003. Effects of viral infection on photosynthetic processes in the bloom-forming alga Heterosigma akashiwo. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 31:9-17
  123. Nielsen, C.B. D. Cooper, S.M. Short, J.H. Myers, C.A. Suttle. 2002. DNA polymerase gene sequences indicate western and forest tent caterpillar viruses form a new taxonomic group within baculoviruses. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 81:131-147
  124. Wilhelm, S.W., W.H. Jeffrey, C.A. Suttle, D.L. Mitchell. 2002. Estimation of biologically damaging UV levels in marine surface waters with DNA and viral dosimeters. Photochemistry and Photobiology 76:268 - 273
  125. Ortmann, A.C., J.E. Lawrence and C.A. Suttle. 2002. Lytic viral production and lysogeny in heterotrophic bacterial and cyanobacterial communities. Microbial Ecology 43:225-231
  126. Lawrence, J.E., A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 2002. Viruses causing lysis of the toxic bloom-forming alga, Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae), are widespread in coastal sediments of British Columbia, Canada. Limnology and Oceanography 47:545-550
  127. Short, S.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2002. Sequence analysis of marine virus communities reveals groups of related algal viruses are widely distributed in nature Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68:1290-1296
  128. Wilhelm, S.W., S.M. Brigden and C.A. Suttle. 2002. Direct measurements of viral production in stratified and tidally mixed waters in the Strait of Georgia. Microbial Ecology 43:168-173
  129. Lawrence, J.E., A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 2001. Characterization of a novel virus causing the lysis of the toxic bloom-forming alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Journal of Phycology 37:216-222
  130. Short, S.M. and C.A. Suttle 2000. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis resolves virus sequences amplified with degenerate primers. BioTechniques 28:20-26
  131. Wilhelm, S.W. and C.A. Suttle. 1999. Microbes, viruses, and nutrient cycles in the sea. Bioscience 49:781-788 (among most highly cited articles in BioScience: 1 March 2015.
  132. Short, S.M. and C.A. Suttle. 1999. Use of the polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to study diversity in natural virus communities. Hydrobiologia 401:19-33
  133. Suttle, C.A. 1999. Do viruses control the oceans? Natural History 108:48-51
  134. Weinbauer, M.G. and C.A. Suttle. 1999. Lysogeny and prophage induction in coastal and offshore bacterial communities. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 18:217-225
  135. Weinbauer, M.G., S.W. Wilhelm, C.A. Suttle, R. Pledger, and D.L. Mitchell. 1999. Sunlight-induced DNA damage and resistance in natural virus communities. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 17:111-120
  136. Garza, D.R. and C.A. Suttle. 1998. The effect of cyanophages on the mortality of Synechococcus spp. and selection for UV resistant viral communities Microbial Ecology 36:281-292
  137. Kepner, R.L., R.A. Wharton and C.A. Suttle. 1998. Abundant viruses in Antarctic lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 43:1754-1761
  138. Wilhelm, S.W., M.G. Weinbauer, C.A. Suttle and W.H. Jeffrey. 1998. The role of sunlight in the removal and repair of viruses in the sea. Limnology and Oceanography 43:586-592
  139. Wilhelm, S.W., M.G. Weinbauer, C.A. Suttle, R.J. Pledger and D.L. Mitchell. 1998. Measurements of DNA damage and photoreactivation imply that most viruses in marine surface waters are infective. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 14:215-222
  140. DePaola, A., M.L. Motes, A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 1998. Phages infecting Vibrio vulnificus are abundant and diverse in oysters collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64:346-351
  141. DeYoe, H.R., D.A. Stockwell, R.R. Bidigare, M. Latasa, P.W. Johnson, P.E. Hargraves and C.A. Suttle. 1997. Description and characterization of the algal species Aureoumbra lagunensis gen. et sp. nov. and referral of Aureoumbra and Aureococcus to the Pelagophyceae. Journal of Phycology 33:1042-1048
  142. Weinbauer, M.G. and C.A. Suttle. 1997. Comparison of epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy for counting viruses in natural marine waters. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 13:225-232
  143. Weinbauer, M.G., S.W. Wilhelm, C.A. Suttle and D.R. Garza. 1997. Photoreactivation compensates for UV damage and restores infectivity to natural marine viral communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63:2200-2205
  144. Weinbauer, M.G. and C.A. Suttle. 1996. Potential significance of lysogeny to bacteriophage production and bacterial mortality in coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62:4374-4380
  145. Chen, F., C.A. Suttle and S.M. Short. 1996. Genetic diversity in marine algal virus communities as revealed by sequence analysis of DNA polymerase genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62:2869-2874
  146. Chen, F. and C.A. Suttle. 1996. Evolutionary relationships among large double-stranded DNA viruses that infect microalgae and other organisms as inferred from DNA polymerase genes. Virology 219:170-178
  147. Garza, D.R. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Large double-stranded DNA viruses which cause the lysis of marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates (Bodo sp.) occur in natural marine virus communities. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 9:203-210
  148. Hennes, K.P., A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Fluorescently labeled virus probes show that natural virus populations can control the structure of marine microbial communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:3623-3627
  149. Cottrell, M.T. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Genetic diversity of algal viruses which lyse the photosynthetic picoflagellate Micromonas pusilla (Prasinophyceae). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:3088-3091
  150. Hennes, K.P. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Direct counts of viruses in natural waters and laboratory cultures by epifluorescence microscopy. Limnology and Oceanography 40:1050-1055
  151. Chen, F. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Nested PCR with three highly degenerate primers for amplification and identification of DNA from related organisms. BioTechniques 18:609-611
  152. Chen, F. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Amplification of DNA polymerase gene fragments from viruses infecting microalgae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:1274-1278
  153. Cottrell, M.T. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Dynamics of a lytic virus infecting the photosynthetic marine picoflagellate, Micromonas pusilla. Limnology and Oceanography 40:730-739
  154. DeYoe, H.R., A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Phylogeny of Aureococcus anophagefferens and a morphologically similar bloom-forming alga from Texas as determined by 18S rDNA sequence analysis. Journal of Phycology 31:413-418
  155. Suttle, C.A. and A.M. Chan. 1995. Viruses infecting the marine prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina spp.: isolation, preliminary characterization and natural abundance. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:275-282
  156. Suttle, C.A. 1994. The significance of viruses to mortality in aquatic microbial communities. Microbial Ecology 28:237-243
  157. Suttle, C.A. and A.M. Chan. 1994. Dynamics and distribution of cyanophages and their effect on marine Synechococcus spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60:3167-3174
  158. DeYoe, H.D. and C.A. Suttle. 1994. The inability of the Texas "Brown Tide" alga to use nitrate and the role of nitrogen in the initiation of a persistent bloom of this organism. Journal of Phycology 30:800-806
  159. Fuhrman, J.A. and C.A. Suttle. 1993. Viruses in marine planktonic systems. Oceanography 6:50-62
  160. Cottrell, M.T. and C.A. Suttle. 1993. Production of axenic cultures of Micromonas pusilla (Prasinophyceae) using treatments with antibiotics. Journal of Phycology 29:385-387
  161. González, J.M. and C.A. Suttle. 1993. Grazing by marine nanoflagellates on viruses and virus-sized particles: ingestion and digestion. Marine Ecology Progress Series 94:1-10
  162. Suttle, C.A. and A.M. Chan. 1993. Marine cyanophages infecting oceanic and coastal strains of Synechococcus: abundance, morphology, cross-infectivity and growth characteristics. Marine Ecology Progress Series 92:99-109
  163. Suttle, C.A. 1992. Inhibition of photosynthesis by the submicron size fraction concentrated from seawater. Marine Ecology Progress Series 87:105-112
  164. Suttle, C.A. and F. Chen. 1992. Mechanisms and rates of decay of marine viruses in seawater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58:3721-3729
  165. Cottrell, M.T. and C.A. Suttle. 1991. Wide-spread occurrence and clonal variation in viruses which cause lysis of a cosmopolitan, eukaryotic marine phytoplankter Micromonas pusilla. Marine Ecology Progress Series 78:1-9
  166. Suttle, C.A., W.P. Cochlan and J.G. Stockner. 1991. Size-dependent ammonium and phosphate uptake, and N:P supply ratios in an oligotrophic lake. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48:1226-1234
  167. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan and M.T. Cottrell. 1991. Use of ultrafiltration to isolate viruses from seawater which are pathogens to marine phytoplankton. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 57:721-726
  168. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan and J.A. Fuhrman. 1991. Dissolved free amino acids in the Sargasso Sea: Uptake and respiration rates, turnover times and concentrations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 70:189-199
  169. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan, and M.T. Cottrell. 1990. Infection of phytoplankton by viruses and reduction of primary productivity. Nature 347:467-469
  170. Suttle, C.A., J.A. Fuhrman and D.G. Capone. 1990. Rapid ammonium cycling and concentration-dependent partitioning of ammonium and phosphate: implications for carbon transfer in planktonic communities. Limnology and Oceanography 35:424-433
  171. Butler, N., C.A. Suttle and W.E. Neill. 1989. Discrimination by zooplankton between algae of different nutritional status. Oecologia 78:368-372
  172. Suttle, C.A. and P.J. Harrison. 1988. Ammonium and phosphate uptake rates, N:P supply ratios, and evidence for N and P limitation in some oligotrophic freshwater lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 33:186-202
  173. Suttle, C.A. and P.J. Harrison. 1988. Rapid ammonium uptake by freshwater phytoplankton. Journal of Phycology 24:13-16
  174. Suttle, C.A. and P.J. Harrison. 1988. Ammonium and phosphate uptake kinetics of size-fractionated phytoplankton from an oligotrophic freshwater lake. Journal of Plankton Research 10:133-149
  175. Suttle, C.A., J.G. Stockner, K.S. Shortreed and P.J. Harrison. 1988. Time-course of size-fractionated phosphate uptake: Are large cells better competitors for pulses of phosphate than smaller cells? Oecologia 74:571-576
  176. Suttle, C.A., J.G. Stockner and P.J. Harrison. 1987. Effects of nutrient pulses on community structure and cell size of a freshwater phytoplankton assemblage in culture. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44:1768-1774
  177. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan, W.D. Taylor and P.J. Harrison. 1986. Grazing of planktonic diatoms by microflagellates. Journal of Plankton Research 8:393-398
  178. Suttle, C.A. and P.J. Harrison. 1986. Phosphorus uptake rates of phytoplankton assemblages grown at different dilution rates in semi-continuous culture. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43:1474-1481
  179. Suttle, C.A., N.M. Price, P.J. Harrison and P.A. Thompson. 1986. Polymerization of silica in acidic solutions: A note of caution to phycologists. Journal of Phycology 22:234-237


(b) Conference Proceedings


  1. Suttle, C.A. 2003. Viral diversity and its implications for infection in the sea. pp. 73-75 in Ecology of Marine Viruses. CIESM Workshop Monographs no. 21, 94 pages, Monaco
  2. Suttle, C.A. 2002. Loss processes in regulating harmful algal blooms pp. 17-18 in Developments for a Canadian GEOHAB (Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms) Program: 2001 Workshop Report, J.L. Martin (ed.), Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2400
  3. Wilhelm, S.W. and C.A. Suttle.2000.Viruses as regulators of nutrient cycles in aquatic environments.Pp 551-556 in:Microbial Biosystems: New Frontiers; C.R. Bell, M. Brylinsky, P. Johnson-Green (eds); Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology, Halifax, NS, August 1998
  4. Suttle, C.A. 1996. Viruses as biological control agents for blooms of marine phytoplankton. pp. 71-76 in Proceedings of the Brown Tide Summit, 20-21 October 1995, New York Sea Grant Institute
  5. Stockwell, D.A., T.E. Whitledge, E.J. Buskey, H. DeYoe, K.C. Dunton, G.J. Holt, S.A. Holt, P.A. Montagna and C.A. Suttle. 1996. Texas coastal lagoons and a persistent brown tide. pp. 81-85 in Proceedings of the Brown Tide Summit, 20-21 October 1995, New York Sea Grant Institute
  6. Suttle, C.A., F. Chen and A.M. Chan. 1992. Marine viruses: Decay rates, diversity and ecological implications. pp. 153-163 in International Marine Biotechnology Conference "IMBC-91": Short Communications of the Invited Lectures, C.C. Nash II (ed.), Developments in Microbiology Series, W. Brown Co., Dubuque


(c) Other


  1. Suttle, C.A. and A.M. Chan. 2001. Genus Prymnesiovirus (Phycodnaviridae) in The Springer Index of Viruses, C.A. Tidona and G. Darai (eds), Springer-Verlag, NY, 1511 pp
  2. Suttle, C.A. 2001. Genus Prasinovirus (Phycodnaviridae) in The Springer Index of Viruses, C.A. Tidona and G. Darai (eds) Springer-Verlag, NY, 1511 pp
  3. Suttle, Curtis A 1999 Cyanophages. In: Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. London: Nature Publishing Group. [doi:10.1038/npg.els.0000775]




(a) Journals


  1. Deeg, C.M., C.-E.T. Chow and C.A. Suttle. 2017. The kinetoplastid-infecting Bodo saltans virus (BsV), a window into the most abundant giant viruses in the sea. bioRxiv doi:, 6 November 2017 (40 pages)
  2. Shelford, E.J. and C.A. Suttle. 2017. Virus mediated transfer of nitrogen from heterotrophic bacteria to phytoplankton. Biogeosciences Discussion, 18 July 2017 (33 pages)
  3. Suttle, C.A. 2017. From Farm to Sea: A Tribute to Paul J. Harrison. Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 26(2): 58-59, doi: 10.1002/lob.10170
  4. Suttle, C.A. 2016. Viral diversity on the global stage. Nature Microbiology doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.205 (2 pages)
  5. Vierros, M., C.A. Suttle, H. Harden-Davies and G. Burton. 2016. Who owns the ocean? Policy issues surrounding marine genetic resources. Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 25(2), 29-35, doi:10.1002/lob.10108
  6. Labonté, J.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Corrigendum: gokushoviruses and biogeographic separation in the sea. Frontiers in Microbiology 4:404. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00114
  7. White, R.A. III and C.A. Suttle. 2013. The draft genome of Sphingomonas paucimobilis strain HER1398 (Proteobacteria), host to the giant PAU phage, indicates that it is a member of the genus Sphingobacterium (Bacteroidetes). Genome Announcements 1(4):e00598-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00598-13.
  8. White, R.A. III, C.J. Grassa and C.A. Suttle. 2013. Draft Genome Sequence of an Exiguobacterium Strain RW-2 with wide thermal, salinity, and pH tolerance, isolated from modern microbialites. Genome Announcements 1(4):e00597-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00597-13.
  9. White, R.A. III, C.J. Grassa and C.A. Suttle. 2013. The first draft genome from the genus Agrococcus isolated from modern microbialites. Genome Announcements 1(4):e00391-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00391-13.
  10. Suttle, C. 2005.
  11. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan, M.T. Cottrell. 1991. Virus ecology - reply. Nature 351:612-613


(b) Other


Book Reviews

  1. Suttle, C.A. 2000. Molecular approaches to the study of the ocean. K.E. Cooksey, (ed). Chapman and Hall, 1998, Limnology and Oceanography 45:1677
  2. Suttle, C.A. 1993. Primary productivity and biogeochemical cycles in the sea. P.G. Falkowski and A.D. Woodhead (eds.), Plenum Press. Limnology and Oceanography 38:1588
  3. Suttle, C.A. 1988. Ecology of microbial communities. Symposium 41 of the Society for General Microbiology. M. Fletcher, T.R.G. Gray and J.G. Jones (eds)., Cambridge University Press. Quarterly Review of Biology 63:91


Technical Reports

  1. Short, S.M. and Suttle, C.A. 2000. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of natural virus samples on the DCodeä system. BioRad Technical Note 2550. 2 pp.
  2. Perrin, C.J. and C.A. Suttle. 1986. Nutrient manipulation and benthic algal growth in tributaries of the Flathead River, B.C.: An evaluation of recent data and recommendations for experiments. Prepared under contract for Env. Canada, Water Quality. 47 pp.



  1. Wilhelm, S.W., M.G. Weinbauer and C.A. Suttle. (eds.) 2010. Manual of Aquatic Viral Ecology, p. 1-201, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. doi:10.4319/mave.2010.978-0-9845591-0-7.




  1. Culley, A.I., , and C.A. Suttle. 2011. Taxonomic Structure of the Family Marnaviridae. p. 850-854 in Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses, A.M.Q. King, M.J. Adams, E.B. Carstens, and E.J. Lefkowitz (eds.) Elsevier
  2. Wilson, W.H., J.L. Van Etten, D.C. Schroeder, K. Nagasaki, C. Brussaard, G. Bratbak, and C. Suttle. 2011. Taxonomic Structure of the Family Phycodnaviridae. p. 249-262 in Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses, A.M.Q. King, M.J. Adams, E.B. Carstens, and E.J. Lefkowitz (eds.) Elsevier
  3. Lim, D.S.S., A.L. Brady, A.F. Abercromby, D.T. Andersen, M. Andersen, R.R. Arnold, J.S. Bird, H.R. Bohm, L. Booth, S.L. Cady, Z. Cardman, A.M. Chan, O. Chan, C. Chénard, B.R. Cowie, A. Davila, M.C. Deans, W. Dearing, M. Delaney, M. Downs, T. Fong, A. Forrest, M.L. Gernhardt, J.R. Gutsche, C. Hadfield, A. Hamilton, I. Hawes, J. Hansen, J. Heaton, Y. Imam, B.L. Laval, D. Lees, L. Leoni, C. Looper, S. Love, M.M. Marinova, D. McCombs, C.P. McKay, B. Mireau, G. Mullins, S.H. Nebel, P. Nuytten, R. Pendery, W. Pike, S.B. Pointing, J. Pollack, N. Raineault, M. Reay, D. Reid, T. Sallstedt, D. Schulze-Makuch, M. Seibert, R. Shepard, G.F. Slater, J. Stonehouse, D.Y.Sumner, C.A. Suttle, A. Trembanis, C. Turse, M. Wilhelm, N. Wilkinson, D. Williams, D.M. Winget, C. Winter. 2011. A Historical Overview of the Pavilion Lake Research Project – Analog Science and Exploration in an Underwater Environment. Chapter 7 in Analogs for Planetary Exploration
  4. Suttle, C.A. and J.A. Fuhrman. 2010. Enumeration of virus particles in aquatic or sediment samples by epifluorescence microscopy, p. 145-153 in Manual of Aquatic Viral Ecology,, S.W. Wilhelm, M.G. Weinbauer, and C.A. Suttle (eds), ASLO.
  5. Culley, A. I., C. A. Suttle, and G. F. Steward. 2010. Characterization of the diversity of marine RNA viruses, p. 193-201 in Manual of Aquatic Viral Ecology,, Wilhelm, S.W., M.G. Weinbauer, and C.A. Suttle, (eds) ASLO.
  6. Ortmann, A.C. and C.A. Suttle. 2009. Determination of virus abundance by epifluorescence microscopy, Chapter 10 in Bacteriophages, Methods and Protocols, Vol 1: Isolation, Characterization, and Interactions, Clokie, M.R.J. and Kropinski, A.M. (eds.),  p. 87-96, Humana Press
  7. Pausz, C., J.L. Clasen and C.A. Suttle. 2009. Isolation independent methods of characterizing phage communities 1: Strain typing using fingerprinting methods, Chapter 15 in Bacteriophages, Methods and Protocols, Vol 2: Molecular and Applied Aspects, Clokie, M.R.J. and Kropinski, A.M. (eds.), pp 255-278, Humana Press
  8. Lang, A.S. and C.A. Suttle. 2008. Marnaviruses. Encyclopedia of Virology (B.W.J. Mahy and M.H.V. Van Regenmortel, eds.), pp. 280-285, Oxford: Elsevier
  9. Vincent, W.F., C. Pedrós-Alió, C.A. Suttle, et al. 2008. Microbial communities and carbon fluxes. In: On Thin Ice: A Synthesis of the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES). L. Fortier, D. Barber & J. Michaud (ed.). pp. 85-89, Aboriginal Issue Press, Winnipeg, Manitoba
  10. Culley, A.I. and C.A. Suttle 2007. Community Structure: Viruses, Chapter 36 in Manual of Environmental Microbiology, C.J. Hurst, R.L Crawford, J.L. Garland, D.A. Lipson, A.L. Mills and L.D. Stezenbach (eds.), ASM Press, Wash DC
  11. Culley, A.I., , and C.A. Suttle. 2005. Taxonomic Structure of the Family Marnaviridae. In "Virus Taxonomy: Eighth Report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses" C.M. Fauquet, M.A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger, and L.A. Ball (eds.) Elsevier
  12. Suttle, C.A. 2002. Community Structure: Viruses, Chapter 32 (pp. 364-370) in Manual of Environmental Microbiology, C.J. Hurst, G.R. Knudson, M.J. McInerney, L.D. Stezenbach and M.V. Walter (eds.), ASM Press, Wash DC
  13. Suttle, C.A. 2000. Cyanophages and their role in the ecology of cyanobacteria. Chapter 20 (pp. 563-589 in The Ecology of Cyanobacteria: Their Diversity in Time and Space, B.A. Whitton and M. Potts (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publ, Boston
  14. Suttle, C.A. 2000. The ecological, evolutionary and geochemical consequences of viral infection of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. Chapter 6 (pp. 248-296) in Viral Ecology, C.J. Hurst (ed.), Academic Press, London, 639 pp.
  15. Suttle, C.A. 1997. Community Structure: Viruses. Chapter 28 (pp. 272-277) in Manual of Environmental Microbiology, C.J. Hurst, G.R. Knudson, M.J. McInerney, L.D. Stezenbach and M.V. Walter (eds.), ASM Press, Wash DC
  16. Suttle, C.A. 1993. Enumeration and isolation of viruses. Chapter 15 (pp. 121-134) in Current Methods in Aquatic Microbial Ecology, P.F. Kemp, B.F. Sherr, E.F. Sherr and J.J. Cole (eds.), Lewis Publ., Boca Raton
  17. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan, F. Chen and D.R. Garza. 1993. Cyanophages and sunlight: A paradox. pp. 303-307 in Trends in Microbial Ecology, R. Guerrero and C. Pedros-Alio (eds.), Span. Society Microbiology, Barcelona.