Many problems in the Earth sciences involve fluid flow. Examples include the formation and subsequent thermal evolution of planets, the generation of planetary magnetic fields, the generation, rise, chemical differentiation and eruption of magmas, sedimentation and mechanical erosion at riverbeds, and circulation in the atmosphere and oceans. My research interests generally involve the application of experimental and theoretical fluid dynamics, combined with field- or laboratory-based observational studies to understanding the cooling and differentiation of planets. In particular, I am interested in constructing knowledge about how mantle convection leads to volcanism, and about how observations and modeling of volcanic processes can be applied to constrain the dynamics of planetary interiors.
Ten of the current questions in which I am interested include:
1) How do continents influence the nature and heat transfer properties of mantle convection?
2) What is the structure of the mantle plume underlying the Tharsis Rise on Mars? Did the emergence of this plume and associated production of the Tharsis volcanic province ultimately annihilate the early core dynamo?
3) Can climate change alter the tectonic style of terrestrial planets? How is this climate signal transmitted to the mantle? How does the mantle respond?
4) What are the processes that govern the sedimentation, stability, and ultimate longevity of explosive volcanic eruption columns and pyroclastic flows? What features of pyroclastic deposits might be used to infer the mechanics of such processes in prehistoric events?
5) How do basalt replenishments cause large crystal-rich silicic magma chambers to overturn and erupt catastrophically at the surface? How do we use observations from the geological record to constrain the key underlying processes governing these events?6) Why does the inferred strength of hotpsot volcanism vary spatially over the Earth's surface? What are the implications for the structure of mantle plumes? Why is the Hawaiian hotspot getting stronger?7) Why might partial melts occur and persist above the Earth's core-mantle boundary over geological time? What are the implications for the composition and thermal history of the mantle and the behaviour of Earth's core dynamo?
8) How do undersea eruptions and black smoker vents influence the chemistry and biodiversity of the deep ocean?
9) What is the origin of volcanic tremor that precedes explosive volcanism? Why is the character of this ground oscillation so consistent around the world?
10) What is the climatic footprint of a super continental cycle? How has the formation and destruction of supercontinents influence the evolution of Earth's atmosphere, ocean and biosphere?
Effective teaching is very important to me. My goal in the classroom is to create an environment in which knowledge is constructed by students more than it is presented by me. Said differently, I have found that an effective way €œto teach science€ is simply to do science in the classroom, with my role being mostly a coach. As an example of what I mean, think of how coffee in an insulated mug without a lid cools to the overlying air. To explain this problem in a class it is easy to envisage a series of lectures that would break the issue of how hot coffee cools down into the main components of the science of thermal convection. However, no matter how brilliant my explanations might be, it is infinitely more engaging and inspiring to simply place a drop of cream in the coffee and study how the motions driven by the surface cooling disperse the cream, and hence distribute the cooling over the full depth of the coffee. To illustrate my approach more formally, in the classroom we (the students and me) begin an analysis of the cup of coffee as a team. The first step is to describe in detail everything we can observe about the cup, the coffee, and the drop of cream. Next, we formulate questions aimed at deciphering the driving dynamics of the cooling problem. These questions lead, in turn, to further inquiries about the physics of the problem that could take us first to textbooks and then to research articles. Following a careful study of the physics of the problem we would formulate hypotheses designed to unravel in a clear way precisely how the coffee cools. To test these hypotheses we would develop a list of good experiments to do and then we would do them. At the end of this study the students would have learned the significance of the scientific method, how to formulate and solve problems and, ultimately, how to construct knowledge in small and careful increments—i.e. learn.
Courses I Teach
Lenardic A., Jellinek A.M, Foley B., O'Neill C., Moore W.B. 2016. Climate-tectonic coupling: Variations in the mean, variations about the mean, and variations in mode. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS. 121:1831-1864.
Jessop D.E, Gilchrist J., Jellinek A.M, Roche O.. 2016. Are eruptions from linear fissures and caldera ring dykes more likely to produce pyroclastic flows? EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 454:142-153.
Unglert K., Radic V., Jellinek A.M. 2016. Principal component analysis vs. self-organizing maps combined with hierarchical clustering for pattern recognition in volcano seismic spectra. JOURNAL OF VOLCANOLOGY AND GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH. 320:58-74.
Lenardic A., Crowley J.W, Jellinek A.M, Weller M.. 2016. The Solar System of Forking Paths: Bifurcations in Planetary Evolution and the Search for Life-Bearing Planets in Our Galaxy. ASTROBIOLOGY. 16:551-559.
Kennedy BM, Wadsworth FB, Vasseur J, C. Schipper I, Jellinek A.M, von Aulock FW, Hess K-U, J. Russell K, Lavallee Y, Nichols ARL et al.. 2016. Surface tension driven processes densify and retain permeability in magma and lava. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 433:116-124.
Wiebe RA, Jellinek A.M, Hodge KF. 2016. New insights into the origin of ladder dikes: Implications for punctuated growth and crystal accumulation in the Cathedral Peak granodiorite. Lithos.
Unglert K., Jellinek A.M. 2015. Volcanic tremor and frequency gliding during dike intrusions at Kilauea-A tale of three eruptions. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH. 120:1142-1158.
Jellinek A.M, Jackson M.G. 2015. Connections between the bulk composition, geodynamics and habitability of Earth. NATURE GEOSCIENCE. 8:587-593.
Jessop D.E, Jellinek A.M. 2014. Effects of particle mixtures and nozzle geometry on entrainment into volcanic jets. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. 41:3858-3863.
Monteux J., Jellinek A.M, Johnson C.L. 2013. Dynamics of core merging after a mega-impact with applications to Mars' early dynamo. ICARUS. 226:20-32.
Carazzo G., Jellinek A.M, Turchyn A.V. 2013. The remarkable longevity of submarine plumes: Implications for the hydrothermal input of iron to the deep-ocean. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 382:66-76.
Bercovici D, Jellinek A.M, Michaut C, Roman DC, Morse R. 2013. Volcanic tremors and magma wagging: gas flux interactions and forcing mechanism. GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL. 195:1001-1022.
Bain A.A, Jellinek A.M, Wiebe R.A. 2013. Quantitative field constraints on the dynamics of silicic magma chamber rejuvenation and overturn. CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY. 165:1275-1294.
Hoeink T, Lenardic A, Jellinek A.M. 2013. Earth's thermal evolution with multiple convection modes: A Monte-Carlo approach. PHYSICS OF THE EARTH AND PLANETARY INTERIORS. 221:22-26.
Jackson MG, Jellinek A.M. 2013. Major and trace element composition of the high He-3/He-4 mantle: Implications for the composition of a nonchonditic Earth. GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS. 14:2954-2976.
Carazzo G., Jellinek A.M. 2013. Particle sedimentation and diffusive convection in volcanic ash-clouds. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH. 118:1420-1437.
Hodge K.F, Jellinek A.M. 2012. Linking enclave formation to magma rheology. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH. 117
Sreenivasan B, Jellinek A.M. 2012. Did the Tharsis plume terminate the Martian dynamo? EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 349:209-217.
Hodge KF, Carazzo G, Montague X, Jellinek A.M. 2012. Magmatic structures in the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite, California: a new model for the formation and deformation of ladder dikes. CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY. 164:587-600.
Hodge KF, Carazzo G, Jellinek A.M. 2012. Experimental constraints on the deformation and breakup of injected magma. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 325:52-62.
Carazzo G, Jellinek A.M. 2012. A new view of the dynamics, stability and longevity of volcanic clouds. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 325:39-51.
Hodge KF, Jellinek A.M. 2012. A Simple Mechanical Recipe for Andesites. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 1:2886.
Hoeink T, Jellinek A.M, Lenardic A. 2011. Viscous coupling at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS. 12
Lenardic A., Moresi L., Jellinek A.M, O'Neill C.J, Cooper C.M, Lee C.T. 2011. Continents, supercontinents, mantle thermal mixing, and mantle thermal isolation: Theory, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments. GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS. 12
Monteux J., Jellinek A.M, Johnson C.L. 2011. Why might planets and moons have early dynamos? EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 310:349-359.
Gleeson T, Smith L, Moosdorf N, Hartmann J, Durr HH, Manning AH, van Beek LPH, Jellinek A.M. 2011. Mapping permeability over the surface of the Earth. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. 38
Jellinek A.M, Bercovici D. 2011. Seismic tremors and magma wagging during explosive volcanism. NATURE. 470:522-U109.
Hodge KF, Carazzo G, Jellinek A.M. 2011. Experimental constraints on the formation of mafic enclaves vs. mafic layers: Why are some silicic plutons layered and others not?AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 1:2580.
Wise S, Garcia MO, J Rhodes M, Jellinek A.M, Scoates JS. 2011. Role of the deep mantle in generating the compositional asymmetry of the Hawaiian mantle plume. Nature Geoscience. 4:831–838.
Kennedy B.M, Jellinek A.M, Russell J.K, Nichols A.RL, Vigouroux N.. 2010. Time-and temperature-dependent conduit wall porosity: A key control on degassing and explosivity at Tarawera volcano, New Zealand. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 299:126-137.
Hernlund JW, Jellinek A.M. 2010. Dynamics and structure of a stirred partially molten ultralow-velocity zone. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 296:1-8.
Hodge KF, Carazzo G, Jellinek A.M. 2010. Field and experimental constraints on the deformation and break-up up of injected magma (Invited). AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
Jellinek A.M, Lenardic A.. 2009. Effects of spatially varying roof cooling on thermal convection at high Rayleigh number in a fluid with a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS. 629:109-137.
O'Neill C., Lenardic A., Jellinek A.M, Moresi L.. 2009. Influence of supercontinents on deep mantle flow. GONDWANA RESEARCH. 15:276-287.
Lenardic A., Jellinek A.M. 2009. Tails of two plume types in one mantle. GEOLOGY. 37:127-130.
Jellinek A.M, Johnson C.L, Schubert G.. 2008. Constraints on the elastic thickness, heat flow, and melt production at early Tharsis from topography and magnetic field observations. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS. 113
Kennedy BM, Jellinek A.M, Stix J. 2008. Coupled caldera subsidence and stirring inferred from analogue models. NATURE GEOSCIENCE. 1:385-389.
Lenardic A., Jellinek A.M, Moresi L.-N. 2008. A climate induced transition in the tectonic style of a terrestrial planet. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 271:34-42.
Sleep NH, Jellinek A.M. 2008. Scaling relationships for chemical lid convection with applications to cratonal lithosphere. GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS. 9
Hodge KF, Jellinek A.M. 2008. Field And Experimental Constraints on the Rheology of Silicic Magma. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 1:2215.
Hodge KF, Jellinek A.M. 2008. Linking a Magma's Microstructure to a Macroscopic Description of its Rheology. 2008 IAVCEI meeting, Iceland.
O'Neill C., Jellinek A.M, Lenardic A.. 2007. Conditions for the onset of plate tectonics on terrestrial planets and moons. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 261:20-32.
O'Neill C., Lenardic A., Jellinek A.M, Kiefer W.S. 2007. Melt propagation and volcanism in mantle convection simulations, with applications for Martian volcanic and atmospheric evolution. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS. 112
Audet P, Jellinek A.M, Uno H. 2007. Mechanical controls on the deformation of continents at convergent margins. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 264:151-166.
Robin CMI, Jellinek A.M, Thayalan V, Lenardic A. 2007. Transient mantle convection on Venus: The paradoxical coexistence of highlands and coronae in the BAT region. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 256:100-119.
Thayalan V., Jellinek A.M, Lenardic A.. 2006. Recycling the lid: Effects of subduction and stirring on boundary layer dynamics in bottom-heated planetary mantle convection. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. 33
Jellinek A.M, Gordon RG, Zatman S. 2006. Experimental tests of simple models for the dynamics of diffuse oceanic plate boundaries. GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL. 164:624-632.
Jellinek A.M, Manga M. 2005. An explanation of the longevity and composition of hotspot volcanism in terms of the dynamics of mantle plume formation. GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA. 69:A90.
Lenardic A, Moresi LN, Jellinek A.M, Manga M. 2005. Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 234:317-333.
Gonnermann HM, Jellinek A.M, Richards MA, Manga M. 2004. Modulation of mantle plumes and heat flow at the core mantle boundary by plate-scale flow: results from laboratory experiments. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 226:53-67.
Jellinek A.M, Manga M, Saar MO. 2004. Did melting glaciers cause volcanic eruptions in eastern California? Probing the mechanics of dike formation JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH. 109
Jellinek A.M, Manga M. 2004. Links between long-lived hot spots, mantle plumes, D `', and plate tectonics. REVIEWS OF GEOPHYSICS. 42
Wenzel MJ, Manga M, Jellinek A.M. 2004. Tharsis as a consequence of Mars' dichotomy and layered mantle. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. 31
Jellinek A.M, DePaolo DJ. 2003. A model for the origin of large silicic magma chambers: precursors of caldera-forming eruptions. BULLETIN OF VOLCANOLOGY. 65:363-381.
Stegman DR, Jellinek A.M, Zatman SA,, Richards MA. 2003. An early lunar core dynamo driven by thermochemical mantle convection. NATURE. 421:143-146.
Jellinek A.M, Gonnermann HM, Richards MA. 2003. Plume capture by divergent plate motions: implications for the distribution of hotspots, geochemistry of mid-ocean ridge basalts, and estimates of the heat flux at the core-mantle boundary. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS. 205:361-378.
Gonnermann HM, Manga M, Jellinek A.M. 2002. Dynamics and longevity of an initially stratified mantle. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. 29
Jellinek A.M, Lenardic A, Manga M. 2002. The influence of interior mantle temperature on the structure of plumes: Heads for Venus, tails for the Earth. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. 29
Jellinek A.M, Manga M. 2002. The influence of a chemical boundary layer on the fixity, spacing and lifetime of mantle plumes. NATURE. 418:760-763.
Jellinek A.M, Kerr RC. 2001. Magma dynamics, crystallization, and chemical differentiation of the 1959 Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii, revisited. JOURNAL OF VOLCANOLOGY AND GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH. 110:235-263.
Jellinek A.M, Kerr RC. 1999. Mixing and compositional stratification produced by natural convection 2. Applications to the differentiation of basaltic and silicic magma chambers and komatiite lava flows. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH. 104:7203-7218.
Jellinek A.M, Kerr RC, Griffiths RW. 1999. Mixing and compositional stratification produced by natural convection 1. Experiments and their application to Earth's core and mantle. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH. 104:7183-7201.
Geist D, HOWARD KA, Jellinek A.M, RAYDER S. 1994. THE VOLCANIC HISTORY OF VOLCAN-ALCEDO, GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO - A CASE-STUDY OF RHYOLITIC OCEANIC VOLCANISM. BULLETIN OF VOLCANOLOGY. 56:243-260.